Our ASVAB Electronics Information Study Guide including general information from basic electrical symbols and functions to electrical wiring and the like. This is among the general topics encapsulated in the ASVAB Electronics section. It’s worth noting that some topics may seem familiar but it is very essential to study further about the basic electronic configurations such as how circuits operate, the electric current’s primary definition, conductors, and circuits along with the utilization of Ohm’s law.
Relatively, such sections of the study guide consist of varying questions on analytical vocabulary, and the ability to intuitively recognize simple electrically-inclined concepts. Bear in mind that upon studying the ASVAB electronics study guide, do magnify more on the very foundation of the topic and avoid neglecting even the simplest conditions as this would substantiate the concept definitions which would be mentioned in the succeeding sub-topics and outlines of the study guide.
The information below will show you some basic concepts you may meet in your ASVAB electronics test.
Concept of Flowing Electrons
Like an electric current, this describes the manner with what concurrently occurs upon noting an excess of electrons that moves from the negative origin (−) to an area that has a deficit in electrons commonly known as the positive origin (+). Subsequently, the flow of electrons is reflective of the repulsive and attractive forces between varying charged components.
It is a path that permits electricity to flow from one area to another. Regardless of consisting electrical components, the flow remains unobstructed by a break or gap in the circuit. More so, through utilization conducting materials, along with insulated wires, attached to and connecting both terminals forms a certain circuit.
A prime example that embodies a simple circuit is a battery-based flashlight. Upon pressing the ON button switch of the flashlight, it allows interaction between two contact strips, which initiates an electrical flow, conducted from the battery. The batteries are connected in such a way that the charges from the batteries then flow to the bulb eventually lighting it up.
Open and Closed Circuits
The components of a closed circuit are connected which allows the flow of electrons through conducting wires or materials towards a voltage sequence. On top of this, a gap in the circuit may hinder the connection to properly function. In simple terms, an open circuit won’t work while a closed circuit can.
It is an electrical component or part of a circuit that drains electric power. This includes home appliances that harness electricity. Load may also be denoted as the power consumed by a circuit. It is the opposite of a power source as a load only dispels charge from a circuit but doesn’t yield power.
It is a type of circuit that consists of a single path in which the whole current traverses through one component to another. It is only through each linear component in the series circuit where the current would categorically flow. More so, series circuits have the same current that runs through each component in the process.
The sum of the circuit’s resistivity is the sum in each component’s voltage drops and is the sum of the total voltage and total resistance in a series circuit, respectively. Equivalent resistance which is denoted by Req is the sum of each resistance in the circuit. Considering that there is only a single currency in the process, the term Req is usually used in calculating series circuits through Ohm’s Law.
This type of circuit comprises multiple paths in which the current passes through. With that separation of paths, the current’s power may vary. Regardless of the separated paths, the voltage drop remains the same across the remaining branches.
Unlike a series circuit, if a gap or break is observed in a parallel circuit or simply disconnected, the division will not hinder the current to pass through the other branches.
The parallel circuit’s equivalent resistance is exemplified as:
where 1Req and R1 to R3 serve as the equivalent resistance, first resistor, second resistor, third resistor, and so on.
It is a quantified scaling of the degree of work made by a circuit through a unit of time. Along it is formulas that calculate the electrical power dispersed or produced in the process such as:
in which P is Power, I is Current, R is Resistance, and V is Voltage.
Take note that, it is the voltage source where power is generated and subsequently, dissipated by consisting loads.
Electrical Units of Measurement
Amperes—measures electrical current.
Watts—measures electrical power.
nano- is 1⋅10^−9, micro- is 1⋅10^-6, milli- is 1⋅10^−3, centi- is 1⋅10^−2, kilo- is 1⋅10^3 and mega- is 1⋅10^6, and giga- is 1⋅10^9
Subatomic Particles and Valence Shell
Every single object in the universe consists of basic infinitesimal particles termed atoms. Each atom has its own unique behaviors that depend on its internal foundation. They are composed of three smaller particles namely; protons, electrons, and neutrons. An element known as hydrogen is composed of a single proton but when it is added with another proton, it then becomes helium and so on. If there is, however, a different number of neutrons inside the atomic nucleus, then it is signified as an isotope.
The Three Subatomic particles
Proton– is positively charged and weighs 1.673 x 10^-27
Electron– is negatively charged and weighs 9.11 x 10^-31
Neutron– has a neutral charge and weighs 1.675 x 10^-27
Its worth noting that protons and neutrons constitute a vast majority of the atom’s mass. While electrons are much smaller than protons and neutrons, it co-exists inside the surrounding energy orbitals. When electrons are farthest from the nucleus, they are the most reactive to certain bonds.
Conductivity, Semi-conductivity, and Insulator
Conductivity is a measurement of quantified ease when material permits electric current to flow through it. Inversely, electrical resistivity measures the contradicting force when a material resists the flow of electric current.
Relatively, a conductor is a material that gives minimal resistance to the electric current. One good example is metal due to the lesser resistance during the electron flow process. Materials that possess high resistance are called insulators which also exhibit very low conductivity.
Between insulators and conductors are Semiconductors that have abilities in between both components. Such that when heated, semiconductors increase in conductivity while conductors experience increased resistivity.
It is the amount of charge per unit of time that passes through a specific circuit. Such that,
It is measured in Coulombs per second, or Amperes(A),
1 Ampere= 1 coulomb/second
Current, voltage and resistance are related to each other through Ohm’s Law:
where I is current, V is voltage, and R is resistance.
It is a charged pressure that pushes electrons to move in a circuit. Voltage is a quantitative expression of electric potential difference between two charged points in an electric field. It is measured in Volts (v).
Also known as electromotive force, it is the force responsible for pushing the current through a circuit. It is somewhat similar to a difference in charged pressure due to the higher concentration of charge at one point of the components. This certain difference in concentrated charge results in a ‘voltage’.
It is a property of certain naturally insulated materials that impedes the channel of current procured by a conductor. To put it simply in perspective, conductivity and resistivity are inversely related. Resistance is measured in Ohms.
R=⍴⋅LA, where ⍴ represents the resistivity of the conductor, L is the length or distance, and A is the cross-sectional area.
It is defined as the manifestation of a phenomenon driven by electrostatic charges. More so, a magnetic field can instigate charged particles to make electricity, and there the properties of magnets are collectively known for having the potential capacity to draw electricity from the attraction and repulsion forces situated in opposite poles.
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