ASVAB Word Knowledge Study Guide

With all other tests, Word knowledge is included which is similarly vital in processing the eligibility of an aspiring applicant. This study guide will help you improve your knowledge to get ready for your coming exam.

January 1, 2022

Our ASVAB Word Knowledge Study Guide has all of the terms and information you’ll need to boost your ASVAB score in this section. Let’s get started!

When you join the US military, certain evaluations must be completed to assist you in navigating your major specialization in the military branches. Applicants must pass the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB), which is traditionally divided into 10 test subjects, just as they must pass all other military branches. The test’s findings will assist determine your admissibility to be part or initially be enlisted with the Air Force, Navy, Coast Guard, Army, National Guard, and other services.

With all other tests, Word knowledge is included which is similarly vital in processing the eligibility of an aspiring applicant. Furthermore, it is also widely considered as one of the most important domains to be taken as this would pre-define your vocabulary skills especially, in times of military operations which are somewhat dependent on verbal deliberations, and honing such skill is a necessary step in leading or supporting a certain military operation.

What is included in the ASVAB Word Knowledge test?

The ASVAB Word Knowledge section measures your knowledge and understanding about the word meaning both individually used and when included in a sentence. You may find it difficult to remember a specific word since the English language is so rich. However, our ASVAB word knowledge practice tests are designed and simulated as the actual test to help you adapt to the test format. Improving your language and vocabulary usage will help you both prepare for the ASVAB test and boost your communication ability in your career and personal life.

Your Word Knowledge score is a part of the AFQT score that will determine if you are qualified to enrolling the military. You have to answer 16 questions in 8 minutes on the CAT-ASVAB test, while the paper-and-pencil version asks 35 questions in 11 minutes.

As we continue with the course, take note of these two primary types of questions included in the test:

Literal Definition of a word

These questions let you choose between a set of words that may define the pre-given word.

Example 1:

Nefarious most nearly means,

A. Kindness

B. Thoughtfulness

C. Worthy                

D. Evil

With the given choices above, the answer would be D. Evil. Always read the other words to know if it is likely synonymous or antonymous with the given word.

Example 2:

Flabbergasting most nearly means,

A. Plain

B. Dumbfounding         

C. Simple                     

D. Mundane

The answer above would be “B. Dumbfounding.” Like the first note, always read the other given words to know if they are similar in nature and definition.

Example 3:

Idyllic most nearly means,

A. Picturesque

B. Dreadful    

C. Flawed    

D. Atrocious

It is apparent that the answer would be A. Picturesque, considering that majority of the given words are antonymous with the questioned word.

Emphasized (italicized or underlined) Term

Unlike the first type of question, the emphasized word would be the crux of the question which can be answered by determining how it was utilized in the pre-given sentence.

Example 1:

Tim told his best friend, Cole,” Break a leg, bro!”

A. You’re a loser     

B. Good luck           

C. Good riddance

D. You’re welcome

It would be “B. Good Luck.” Break a leg is a common idiom that expresses your support to a certain someone.

Example 2:

As Gary finished the exam, he told his seatmate, Bryan,” Oh dude, the test was indeed a piece of cake.”

A. Difficult

B. Mind-boggling  

C. Easy

D. Strong

The answer is “C. Easy.” Like the first example, the phrase “ A piece of cake is a common idiomatic expression used by many people when expressing ease in doing a particular work.

ASVAB Word Knowledge
ASVAB Word Knowledge

Core Topics To Study/Ponder

Having much knowledge about basic to advanced grammatical appendices is a fundamental setting that is necessary for you to adapt upon taking all ASVAB tests to properly analyze the set of pre-given questions. Among these technical and grammatical components are; roots, suffixes, and prefixes.

Take note: There’s no need to memorize all of the succeeding terms but it’s more convenient to familiarize the entirety of the grammatical components for accurate deliberation.

To put it into perspective, if you’re aware that “anti” means “opposite/against” then you’d be able to figure out that “anti-Covid 19” means a notion against the concurrent Covid-19.

Read more >> ASVAB Mechanical Comprehension Study Guide


To make things clear, the subsequent terms are common prefixes along with their equivalent definition and how it is used in common words.

bene – good – beneficiary

Sample sentence: John is a beneficiary of an international scholarship.

de – opposing term – delimitation

Sample sentence: The research should have its own limit and delimitation manner.

dis – refuse, opposing factor of – disentangle

Sample sentence: Gwyn tried to disentangle the twisted rope.

em- / en – cause to happen – empower – enlist

Sample sentence: You’ll soon be empowered after enlisting in the service.

in- – inside tern – input

Sample sentence: You must always consider the raw inputs and subsequent outputs.

inter – between certain concepts – intermediary

Sample sentence: Jesus is the intermediary between humanity and the Almighty Father.

mid – in between or middle spot – midterms

Sample sentence: It’s crucial to pass the midterms with flying colors.

mis – wrongly, contradictory – misconception

Sample sentence: World as it is, bears a common misconception about life and death.

non – not – non-existent

Sample sentence: Chloe’s best friend is no less than a non-existent being that only resides in her imagination.

over – beyond, over – oversee

Sample sentence: The military force is established to oversee peace.

re – again – revitalize

Sample sentence: The essence of brotherhood revitalizes the sense of belongingness.

semi – initial, halfway – semi-bald

Sample sentence: Joe went to his barber and asked for a semi-bald cut.

under – beneath, below, under – underlying

Sample sentence: Every conflict has its own underlying reason.

Read more >> Useful ASVAB Word Knowledge Tips You Should Know


Common suffixes along with their meaning word application:

-able  – having the capacity – breakable

Sample sentence: True love is not a breakable bond.

-al – relevance – relational

Sample sentence: It’s nice to have an improved relational thinking style.

 -ence – instance of activity – commence

Sample sentence: The proctor remarked,” Let the exam commence!”

-ation –manner or process – evolution

Sample sentence: The evolution of man is predicted to be a paradox of life.

-ful – plenty/filled with – wonderful

Sample sentence: Life is indeed a wonderful journey.

-ist – one who epitomizes – specialist

Sample sentence: Our neighbor is a resident medical specialist.

-less – not having, the act of post-removal– boneless

Sample sentence: Have you ever tried boneless milkfish?

-let – small version – piglet

Sample sentence: The mother pig was walking alongside her three piglets.

-ment – act/progress of – development

Sample sentence: Humanity is now at the edge of AI development.

-ness – bearing a certain characteristic – holiness

Sample sentence: We shall abide by the holiness of God’s word.

-er / -or – one who acts or perform – operator

Sample sentence: Mr. Doe is a tractor operator in West Virginia.


Common Roots along with their meaning and  word application:

The common roots are words that are the primary origin of other words attached with either a prefix- (before a word) or -suffix (after a word).

bio – means ‘life’ – Biology

cede – going towards – precede

corp – a part of a single body – incorporation

dict – utterance – dictionary

domine – overwhelm/ overcome – domination

form – figure/shape – formulation

fract – breakage/scattered – refraction

graph – outlining – Telegraph

path – experience or feeling – Telepathy

press – deviate – suppress

tract – pulling action – retraction

vok – stimulate or call – evoke

ASVAB Word Knowledge Practice Tests – ABC Elearning

As you finish reading the ASVAB word knowledge study guide above, remember that knowing more than what is provided in this study guide is the best strategy to pass the ASVAB Word knowledge Exam. Essentially, this section of the ASVAB determines your eligibility for the service, therefore having prior knowledge of grammatical, technical, and a hint of extensive literary background will ensure a higher score on the test.

Our FREE 2022 ASVAB practice test is an excellent way to practice and prepare for the upcoming exam! Thousands of ASVAB practice questions are gamified round by round to break up the monotony of standard study methods. Furthermore, many ASVAB full-tests will help you to become acquainted with the actual test format. ASVAB Study Guide 2022 for all 9 parts is available on our website! Let’s get started practicing right away!

Please don’t hesitate to contact us at [email protected] if any issues arise.

Read more >> ASVAB Paragraph Comprehension Study Guide

    Free ASVAB Auto and Shop Information Study Guide 2022

    The ASVAB Auto and Shop Information subtest gauges your knowledge of automobile technology. Let's check this study guide to improve your essential knowledge for this section!

    January 1, 2022

    The ASVAB Auto and Shop Information subtest assesses your understanding of automobile technology, basic repairs, and various shop tools and fasteners. This is a specialized section that isn’t calculated to your Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) score but is used to determine your eligibility for specific military occupations.

    This ASVAB Auto and Shop Study Guide is a thorough study guide that covers all you need to know about the ASVAB. The guide also includes auto and shop information, making it useful for anybody who needs to learn the fundamentals of these subjects. Check it out right now!

    Achieving the best possible score on the ASVAB test including the ASVAB auto and shop information subtest starts with arming yourself with the right tools for the job. We highly recommend the following study guides to help you boost your score.

    asvab auto and shop
    ASVAB auto and shop

    ASVAB Auto and Shop Information Test   

    The CAT-ASVAB test consists of two distinct parts. The first automotive material part has 11 questions and you have 7 minutes to answer.  The shop information asks 11 questions and is allotted 6 minutes.

    In the paper-and-pencil version, you are given 11 minutes to finish 25 questions. The questions are about automobile systems and functions/malfunctions and questions about common shop tools and fasteners and their uses.

    The Test Questions

    The questions on the Auto and Shop Information subtest are to test your knowledge of among other things a functioning vehicle and the common practices and equipment used in automotive shops.

    You will need to know, among other things:

    • Basic engine components and functions
    • Different engine types and sizes
    • How different car parts interact with each other and with the engine
    • How fuel enters the engine
    • How a car’s electrical system functions
    • How to recognize and fix malfunctions in a car
    • Various vehicle operating systems, including the transmission, electrical, brakes, steering, and ignition
    • How computers are used in vehicles today
    • Auto shop procedures
    • Auto shop tools and their functions
    • And much more

    A big part of this is understanding how engines work – from small engines to car engines and above. For example, you will need to know how a typical engine functions from the fuel mixture it burns to how the fuel enters the engine to how the engine utilizes that fuel to produce motion and more.

    • You need to know the four strokes that make up the engine cycle, what the carburetor does, what the throttle does, and much more.
    • You will also need to know about other important vehicle systems such as the brake system, the cooling system, the electrical system, the emissions control system, and more.
    • Computers also play an important role in most vehicles these days so you will need to have an understanding of how computers are utilized in various car systems.
    • You also need know-how tools, such as a sliding caliper, butt chisel, auger bit, box-end wrench, vise grip pliers, and adjustable pipe wrench are used.
    • And that’s not all, you also need to be familiar with striking tools, fastening tools, cutting tools, drilling, punching and gouging tools, and much more.

    Below are some sample questions of Auto and shop information ASVAB that could be on the test:

    • A hammer with a regular striking face and, on the opposite face, a rounded end is called?
    •  What type of bolt has a square section that grips into the part being fixed (typically wood) to prevent the bolt from turning when the nut is tightened?
    • What automotive system uses universal joints, a drive shaft, and a clutch?
    • An internal combustion engine where the cylinders are aligned in two banks, which are at an angle to each other, is known as a?
    • What’s a carburetor’s primary function?
    • What does the alternator do?
    • What is another name for a pipe wrench?

    Read more >> Assembling Objects ASVAB study guide

    Test Taking Tips

    Like some of the more specific sections of the ASVAB test, when it comes to the Auto and Shop Information section chances are you are either going to have a lot of knowledge and experience in this area already or you just do not like the subjects that much.
    If you do want to do well on this subtest but don’t have that much knowledge or experience, we’ll share some things you can do with you later in this study guide.

    As follows for tips for answering the questions on this subtest:

    1. If you don’t have the applicable experience and knowledge, your optimal choice may be to try and use common sense. This may help you to eliminate some of the possible answers right off the bat. Then with the left answers, you should make your best guess. Keep in mind, guessing does not hurt you on the Auto and Shop Information subtest, so you are better off completing an answer than leaving it blank.
    2. Whether you know much about Auto and Shop or know very little, keep in mind this is a time-limited test and that spending too much time on any one question can negatively impact your performance.
    3. If you run into a difficult question it is a smart step to skip that question and then return to it later if you have time. Also, don’t let any question throw you off track and interfere with your ability to answer other questions.
    4. Keep in mind that you can always come back to the question at the end of the test and give it more thought. Most candidates can complete this section without being rushed so that means you may have additional time in the end to review your answers, specifically those answers you are not sure about.
    5. Also don’t forget, if Auto and Shop Information is not required to qualify for the job you want, you may be better spending your time studying other areas of the ASVAB.

    Read more >> ASVAB Word Knowledge Study Guide

    Preparing for the ASVAB Auto and Shop Information Subtest

    If you lack knowledge and experience in auto and shop, there are a few things you should do:

    • You can enroll in a course at your local community college
    • You can learn from someone who has auto and shop experience
    • You can read books and do research on the Internet
    • You can read your car’s automobile manual

    Besides, our experts have crafted a series of questions that cover areas commonly tested on the real ASVAB test to give you an idea of what to expect on the test. Our ASVAB practice test will also better prepare you for the experience of sitting for the ASVAB so that you feel more relaxed and confident when you go to take the test.

    All of the questions are based on previous ASVAB tests and are designed to be as close to the real test as possible. You may enhance your comprehension and knowledge in this subject by taking our ASVAB Auto and shop practice test.

    You may take our ASVAB practice test as many times as you like to improve your knowledge and confidence. It’s important to remember that if you want to join the military and work in an auto or shop, you’ll need to do well on this subtest.

    Take a look at our free ASVAB practice test 2022 and our ASVAB Study Guide for all 9 topics to learn all you need to know about the ASVAB!

      ASVAB General Science Study Guide In 2022

      The ASVAB General Science subtest is designed to test your scientific knowledge. Let's read our lessons and tips for the Science section of the ASVAB to get 100% ready for your coming ASVAB.

      January 1, 2022

      If you perform poorly on the ASVAB, you may miss out on the military job you truly want—or you may not be able to join at all. Don’t worry if you’re nervous about taking the ASVAB—we’ve got you covered! The ASVAB General Science section contains questions that will test your understanding of a variety of basic science principles. If you utilize our ASVAB General Science study guide as a basis for review, you’ll most likely have the knowledge you need to choose the correct answer. In addition, our ASVAB practice test will help you earn the ASVAB score you need. Let’s get started.

      General Information

      The ASVAB’s General Science section is used to assess your scientific aptitude. Students must have a broad understanding of a range of scientific fields, including ecology, astronomy, anatomy, geology, and biology because this is a general science test. When preparing for any of these sections of the general science test, keep in mind that you don’t need to spend too much time on any one of them; all you need is a basic understanding and knowledge of them. Each category will be discussed in further detail in this article.

      The General Science section of the CAT version of the ASVAB has 15 questions that must be completed in 10 minutes. You have 11 minutes to complete the paper-and-pencil test, which consists of 25 questions.

      Life Science

      Health and Nutrition



      Macronutrients contain those larger compounds that provide us with the calories or energy that we need to keep our bodies running. The macronutrients from which our energy is derived are carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids (or fats).

      Carbohydrates—Carbohydrates, both simple and complex, can be regarded as immediate and readily accessible energy. To support metabolic functions, these molecules are ultimately broken down into glucose and circulated throughout the bloodstream.

      Lipids—The body converts and stores unused carbohydrates as fats or lipids. Lipids function as the source material for hormones which also serve as an energy source and enable better absorption of micronutrients.

      Protein—Proteins are made up of amino acids, which can be thought of as micronutrients. Proteins are needed for the growth, repair, and transport of cells. 


      Micronutrients are vitamins and minerals that the body needs to operate properly. These nutrients are only required in little amounts, as indicated by the micro- prefix, however, they are not insignificant. If adequate quantities of these micronutrients are not acquired, overall health may be compromised, with long-term consequences.

      Vitamins—Vitamins are found throughout the body, each serving a particular purpose in maintaining normal cellular function. There are two types of vitamins:  water-soluble vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins (such as the B vitamins) dissolve in water and are carried throughout the body, but they are not stored. Vitamins that are fat-soluble (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K) are found in foods that contain fats and do not dissolve in water.

      Minerals—Minerals are found in foods we eat and are considered to be essential for cell function properly. Magnesium, potassium, sodium, and calcium are common minerals.

      Other Important Substances

      In order for the normal cellular function to occur, your body needs a number of other substances.

      Water—Water is a necessary component for all cellular operations, accounting for 60 to 80 percent of our body mass. The metabolic reactions that occur in our bodies would not be able to live without water.

      Fiber—Fiber is a plant derivative that the body cannot break down and is necessary for bowel health and function. It works by bulking the stool up and making it simpler to pass through the body. This may be found in foods like berries, apples, and whole grains, or as an over-the-counter supplement.

      Nutrition-Related Diseases

      Nutrition-related diseases are those which arise from either the shortage or the excess of a macronutrient or micronutrient. Diabetes, hypertension, scurvy, and iron deficiency anemia are examples of nutrition-related ailments.

      The Human Body

      Human anatomy is the study of the human body, including how it functions, what makes up its components, and what is required to keep it functioning well and properly. The ASVAB’s General Science section includes a part on human anatomy, which requires students to have a fundamental understanding of the human body and its functions. Study the basic components of human anatomies, such as the bones, muscles, and blood vessels that make up the body, as well as the basic functions of these different systems, in order to prepare. Due to the “general” nature of the test, the questions will not be difficult or in-depth, but you should have a basic knowledge of how the body functions and what is necessary to keep it functioning.

      Skeleton and Muscles

      The human skeletal system is a collection of bones, consisting of a very hard and inflexible phosphate, and cartilage made of spongy, flexible collagen. This human skeletal system facilitates locomotion and functions as structural support and protection for organs and muscles. In addition, blood is produced inside of bone marrow.

      The muscular system collaborates with the skeletal system to facilitate motion. There are three types of muscle in the muscular system: cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle.

      The heart is made up of cardiac muscle, which regulates the heart’s contraction and relaxation.

      Skeletal muscles are those that are connected to the bones that enable motion.

      Smooth muscle lines organs and helps digestion.


      Respiration is a process in which living organisms exchange gases between one’s internal and external environment. These gases provide energy to cells so that they can carry out their functions.

      Oxygen—Cellular respiration can take place with or without oxygen. Oxygen is transformed into energy in the form of ATP in aerobic processes (those involving oxygen). This is the gas that we breathe during human respiration.

      Carbon dioxide—Carbon dioxide is the gas that humans exhale after exchanging oxygen for it during respiration.

      Water Vapor—This is water in its gaseous state. It happens when liquid water evaporates or solid water (ice) sublimates.

      Nose—The nose allows for both inhalation and exhalation of air through respiration.

      Nasal cavity—This is the space behind the nose that is filled with air.

      Pharynx—The pharynx (commonly known as the throat) is the structure behind the nose and the mouth that links them to the esophagus. Its primary function is to receive and allow air to transmit to the lungs and food to transmit to the stomach.

      Epiglottis—This is the flap behind the tongue. It ensures that air goes to the lungs and food goes to the stomach. At rest, depending on whether food or air enters the mouth/nose, the epiglottis sits upright and flips over one way or the other.

      Trachea—The trachea (also known as the windpipe) is a passageway through which air becomes moist and warm as it flows to the lungs.

      Bronchi—The trachea divides into the right and left bronchi. The bronchi are important for carrying air that has come through the windpipe to the lungs.

      Lungs—After leaving the left and right bronchi, air respectively dumps into the left and right lungs. The lungs are spongy organs that can be divided into smaller divisions to facilitate gas exchange.

      Bronchioles—They are also known as “little bronchi” which are smaller branches that the left and right bronchi divide into.

      Alveolus—These are tiny air sacs branching off from the bronchioles, where gas exchange in the lungs takes place.

      Capillaries—These are tiny blood vessels serving as the junction point between the arterioles and the venules, which allow nutrients to be transferred between the blood and tissues.

      Diaphragm—The diaphragm is a skeletal muscle located below the lungs. When you inhale, your diaphragm contracts and flattens, allowing your lungs to hold more air. When you exhale, your diaphragm relaxes, allowing air to be pushed out of the lungs.

      Blood and Circulation

      Blood and nutrients are transported throughout the body by the circulatory system. The arteries, capillaries, veins, lungs, brain, heart, and kidneys make up the circulatory system.

      The heart has functions to pump oxygenated blood through the body and deoxygenated blood to the lungs to become oxygenated. Blood, along with other nutrients, rushes through the arteries and veins, while delivering oxygen to cells throughout the body and bringing carbon dioxide to the lungs for elimination.

      Blood includes red blood cells that facilitate oxygenation, white blood cells that aid immunologic defense, plasma that is the liquid medium inside the circulatory system, and platelets that also help aid in defense.

      Other Terms to Know

      Atrium/atria—These are the two receiving chambers of the heart, appearing above the ventricles on both the left and right sides of the heart.

      Ventricles—These are the two pumping chambers of the heart appearing below the atria on both the left and right sides of the heart.

      Vena cava(e)—In the heart, there are two vena cavae: superior and inferior. The superior vena cava is responsible for draining the upper half of the body, while the inferior vena cava is responsible for draining the lower half. Both of them dump deoxygenated blood into the right atrium.

      Pulmonary artery—This is in charge of transporting oxygen-depleted blood from the heart to the lungs.

      Pulmonary vein—This is in charge of transporting oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.

      Aorta—This is the biggest artery in the body. The aorta will transport oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body.

      Artery—This is a blood vessel transporting blood away from the heart. You might think “A” and “Away”. With the exception of the pulmonary artery, which transports deoxygenated blood, arteries normally convey oxygenated blood.

      Arterioles—These are small branches from the arteries that connect arteries to capillaries and are also known as “little arteries.”

      Vein—A vein is a blood vessel that has the function of carrying blood toward the heart. With the exception of the pulmonary vein, which carries oxygenated blood, veins normally carry deoxygenated blood.

      Valves—The four valves of the heart are the bicuspid (mitral) valve, tricuspid valve, aortic valve, and pulmonary valve. The bicuspid and tricuspid valves are also known as the atrioventricular (AV) valves since these are two valves that separate the atria from the ventricles. The left atrium is separated from the left ventricle by the bicuspid (mitral) valve, whereas the right atrium is separated from the left atrium by the tricuspid valve. The pulmonary valve connects the right ventricle to the lungs, whereas the aortic valve connects the left ventricle to the aorta (hence the name).

      Diffusion—Diffusion is the movement of molecules in which they move from a high-concentration area to a low-concentration area.

      Venules—These are small branches off the veins that connect veins to capillaries and are also known as “little veins.”

      Heart Disease (Cardiovascular Disease)

      Heart diseases (also known as cardiovascular diseases) rise from difficulties in pumping blood throughout the body due to arterial blockage, high blood pressure, and other issues.

      Blood Types

      The four major blood types are A, B, AB, and O. The antigens present on one’s red blood cells (also known as erythrocytes) determine which blood type one has. Depending on whether or not the Rhesus (Rh) factor is present, each blood type is also classed as positive or negative.

      Antigens—These are what the cells identify as “self”. If someone has blood type A, for example, A antigens will be found on the surface of their red blood cells. They will have both A and B antigens if they have AB blood. Antigens are not present in O blood.

      Rh factor—This is an inherited protein found on the surface of red blood cells. The presence of this protein makes you Rh-positive, and the absence of this protein makes you Rh-negative.

      Universal donor—This is a person who can donate blood to someone of all blood types. Blood type O is the universal blood donor since its cells have no antigens on their surfaces.

      Universal recipient—This is a person who can receive blood from someone of any blood type. Blood type AB is the universal blood recipient because its cells have both A and B antigens on their surfaces.

      Digestion and Excretion

      The digestive system has the function of breaking food down into usable micronutrients and macronutrients. The digestive process begins upon ingestion of food.

      Our saliva contains enzymes that begin the process of breaking down food. Mastication, or chewing, aids in reducing the food to a bolus that may be swallowed easily.

      Smooth muscle in the esophagus experiences peristalsis to move the bolus to the stomach, where the bolus is treated with strong acids to produce chyme, which is then subsequently passed onto the small intestine.

      The primary function of the small intestine is to absorb nutrients from the chyme before passing it on to the large intestine (colon). Further absorption of nutrients and water occurs in the large intestine before the remaining substance, referred to as feces, is passed to the rectum where it is excreted through the anus.

      The excretory system is responsible for removing waste from the body, usually urine. Through the regulation of internal fluids, this system aids in the maintenance of homeostasis. The kidneys, lungs, skin, ureter, urethra, and urine bladder are the primary components of the excretory system.

      The kidneys are responsible for removing waste from the bloodstream through a filtration system resulting in the production of urine.

      In addition to providing oxygenated blood, the lungs remove carbon dioxide from the bloodstream.

      The skin plays a minor role in excretion that is the organ through which perspiration (sweat) is released. It is mostly responsible for temperature regulation.

      The urethra, ureter, and urinary bladder all work together to remove and expel urine from the body.

      Salivary amylase—This is an enzyme that presents in the mouth and is responsible for the initial breakdown of starches into monosaccharides (simple sugars) from complex carbohydrates.

      Gastric acids—The acidic fluid within the stomach is gastric acid (also known as stomach acid). The pH of the stomach ranges from 1 to 3, and it is necessary for the activation of digestive enzymes and the breakdown of proteins.

      Pepsin—Pepsin is an enzyme found in the stomach having the function of breaking down proteins into polypeptides.

      Pancreas—The pancreas is an organ located below the liver. One of its primary roles is to create enzymes that break down food and convert it into a form that our bodies can use. Lipase is a pancreatic enzyme that has the responsibility of breaking down fats. Pancreatic amylase is also a pancreatic enzyme that, similar to salivary amylase, works in breaking down starches. Finally, trypsin in the pancreas aids in protein digestion.

      Liver—This is a large organ located on the right side of the abdomen. It functions as a producer of bile, metabolizer of nutrients, and enzyme activator. It also aids in the excretion of drugs and hormones.

      Bile—Bile is fluid in green-brown is produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It is responsible for carrying waste away and breaking down fats.

      The Nervous System

      The nervous system enables the communication between cells across the body. The main components of this system are the brain, the spinal cord, and neurons, or nerve cells.

      The brain is the body’s central information processing unit. Made up of billions of neurons, it is where the information received from the senses is processed. The brain comprises two hemispheres (left and right) and three main parts: the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem.

      The cerebrum is the largest portion of the brain. It is in charge of numerous things, including (but not limited to) speech, problem-solving, judgment, and emotions. Balance and coordination are aided by the cerebellum. The brainstem connects with the spinal cord and regulates involuntary movements such as digestion and breathing.

      The brain’s neurons have a nucleus and lengthy branches that branch out to neighboring neurons. To transmit information, chemical signals pass from one neuron to the next neuron.

      The brain is connected to the rest of the body via the spinal cord. It’s a bundle of nerves running vertically through the spine that branches throughout the body. Signals from the senses travel through the spinal cord to be processed in the brain.

      The central nervous system is made up of the spinal cord and brain. A peripheral nervous system is a group of nerves residing outside of the central nervous system that coordinates voluntary and involuntary movement.


      There are two types of reproduction: sexual and asexual. Asexual reproduction does not necessitate the presence of a partner, and the offspring created inherits the parent’s DNA. This is in contrast to sexual reproduction, which normally involves two partners who both contribute equally to the offspring’s genetic makeup.

      Asexual Reproduction

      The method by which somatic (or body) cells divide is known as asexual reproduction. Through mitosis, a cell divides and both daughter cells have the same DNA as the parent cell.

      (Human) Sexual Reproduction

      During sexual intercourse, sperm is ejaculated into a female’s vagina. The sperm travels to the fallopian tubes, where it attempts to fertilize an egg. If fertilization happens, a zygote forms and the cells continue dividing as the fertilized egg travels to the uterus, where it will implant in the uterine wall to create an embryo.

      Meiosis— The division of sex cells occurs through this process. This process produces cells with genetic material derived in part from one parent cell and in part from another parent cell.

      Ovulation—In females, ovulation occurs when an egg is released from the ovary. This happens about two weeks following a woman’s menstruation.

      Ovum—This is the mature female reproductive cell.

      Oviduct (Fallopian Tube)—The ovaries and the uterus are connected via the fallopian tubes. Fertilization of the egg takes place here as well.

      Uterus—The uterus is an internal female organ that is responsible for nourishing a fetus during pregnancy.

      Endometrial lining—This is the uterus lining of the female that gets shed once a month during the menstrual cycle.

      Penis—This is the male’s exterior sex organ that allows for both urine and sperm to pass through.

      Testes—Testes are responsible for producing testosterone and sperm in a male.

      Vagina—The vagina is the canal running from the uterus to the outside of a woman’s body. It has numerous functions, including receiving the penis during sexual intercourse and functioning as a pathway for a fetus during childbirth.

      Zygote—A fertilized ovum is also known by this name.

      Prolactin—Prolactin is a hormone made by the pituitary gland inside the brain that induces postpartum women to make milk. This hormone, however, is found in both males and females, but in varying amounts.

      Lactation—Lactation is defined as the secretion of milk from the mammary glands.

      Menstruation—This is also known as a period. It occurs when a woman’s endometrial lining sheds, producing bleeding throughout the menstrual cycle.

      Menstrual cycle—This is a cycle that pre-menopausal/post-pubescent women go through monthly, during which ovulation occurs.

      Human Pathogens

      In general, a pathogen is anything that has the potential to cause disease. Human pathogens are those that can cause disease in humans such as bacterial, fungal, or viral.

      Bacteria—Bacteria are unicellular, prokaryotic microorganisms that may either benefit or cause harm to people.

      Viruses—Viruses are non-living. In addition, they are pathogenic microorganisms.

      Vaccination/Immunization—These are weaker versions of viruses that allow people to develop immunity to infections caused by either viruses or bacteria.


      Genetics is the study of genes, the portions of DNA resulting in genotypic and phenotypic traits passed through generations. The genotype of an organism is its genetic makeup, which consists of both dominant alleles and recessive alleles (or variations of a gene). The phenotype of an organism is the physical expression of an organism’s genotype.

      Dominant traits are those that are expressed when a person possesses two types of alleles. Recessive traits are those that are not expressed unless a person has both recessive alleles.

      Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the nucleic acid that contains the nucleotides adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine and serves as the blueprint for cell reproduction. Variations in DNA result in the different genetic and physical traits of organisms.

      Cells multiply through the processes of meiosis and mitosis. Sex cells undergo meiosis. Meiosis is a process that combines two individuals to produce a new genotype. Somatic (body) cells undergo mitosis and produce two daughter cells with the same genotype as the parent cell.

      Humans possess 23 pairs of chromosomes, or tightly wrapped strands of DNA, providing the instructions for metabolic processes, building cellular and tissue components, as well as other body functions. Sex is determined by one pair of chromosomes: females have a homozygous XX chromosome, whereas men have a heterozygous XY chromosome.

      A Punnett square is used to determine the potential genotypes of offspring between two parents. It is a large square with four (or more) squares inside, in which the rows and columns correspond to the alleles of the parents. Two heterozygous parents are depicted with a capital letter and a lowercase letter along the left columns and right columns and along the top rows and bottom rows. We can find the offspring genotypes by filling in the four (or more) boxes with the letters which are found at the top and to the left of the Punnett square. Heterozygous parents produce two heterozygous offspring, Aa, and two homozygous offspring, one aa, one AA.

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      Above is an example of a Punnett square. You’ll see that one parent’s set of alleles on the top and parent two’s alleles on the left. In this Punnett square, the female is at the top and the male is on the side, although this is not always the case. If you’re looking at a monohybrid cross, such as the one shown, where just one trait is present, your Punnett square should contain four boxes.

      You must first determine which alleles from each parent meet up in each box to figure out what belongs in that box. If you look at the box on the top left, for example, you’ll notice that there is RR inside the box. That is, both the R from the male and the R from the female met up inside that box. The same process should be followed for the remaining three boxes.

      Other Related Terms

      You should be able to understand and apply the following terms in order to have a better understanding of genetics:

      Gregor Mendel—Gregor Mendel is known as the “Father of Genetics” for his work with pea plants, which established the foundations of genetics as we know it today.

      Gametes—Gametes are mature, haploid sex cells, which in females are the egg and in males are the sperm.

      Diploid—A diploid is two full sets of chromosomes (one from each parent) and this refers to 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

      Haploid—A haploid is a single set of chromosomes that is found in gametes (ex: sperm or egg).

      Genetic code—This is the combination of nucleotides that are found along a DNA sequence carrying genetic information.

      Nucleotides—Nucleotides are compounds that are the structural foundation of DNA. They consist of adenine, uracil, thymine, cytosine, and guanine.

      Double helix—When two single strands of DNA are joined together, they form this shape.


      The most fundamental structural unit of life is the cell. Prokaryotic cells are single-celled organisms not containing a membrane-bound nucleus or organelles. Bacteria are prokaryotic. Eukaryotic cells are single-celled or multi-celled organisms that contain a membrane-bound nucleus in addition to other organelles. Humans are an example of a eukaryotic.

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      Prokaryotes’ genetic material floats openly throughout its cytoplasm, but eukaryotes’ genetic material is found inside the nucleus. Prokaryotes replicate by undergoing binary fission, whereas eukaryotes replicate through undergoing meiosis and mitosis.

      Animal cells are different from plant cells in the organelles that they contain. Organelles are similar to organs in humans and perform the functions required to maintain the metabolic function of the cell. Lysosomes are not usually present in plant cells but are found in animal cells. 

      Plant cells consist of a cell wall, plastids, and chloroplasts, which allow them to create energy through photosynthesis. A nucleus, a cell membrane, a Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, ribosomes, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, cytoplasm, and vacuoles are found in both animal and plant cells.

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      The body performs many of the functions which are also performed by the cell. Energy is produced by cells in the mitochondria, waste is generated by cells through cellular processes and cells eliminate this waste with lysosomes. With vacuoles, they regulate internal fluids and remain isolated from their environment by the cell membrane or wall.

      Cell Respiration

      During cellular respiration, glucose molecules are transformed into ATP, which our bodies may use as an energy source. Glycolysis is the first stage in cellular respiration. Glucose is broken down into two pyruvate molecules, two ATP, and two NADH during glycolysis. The two pyruvates generated undergo pyruvate oxidation in which this process transforms pyruvate into acetyl CoA and creates NADH and carbon dioxide CO2. The Citric Acid Cycle (CAC), commonly known as the Krebs Cycle, is started by acetyl CoA. Each turn of the Krebs Cycle results in the production of two CO2, one ATP, one FADH2, and three NADH.

      Cell Division

      Mitosis is the process through which somatic cells (non-sex cells) are divided. Two identical daughter cells are formed in mitosis. There are four stages to make up of it: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

      Meiosis is the process that sex cells (also known as gametes) undergo to divide. In meiosis, a single cell divides into four different cells, each with half of the original amount of chromosomes that started.


      Ecology is the study of organisms and how they interact with their environment including large interactions, such as large mammals and their environmental behaviors, and small interactions, such as microscopic creatures in their environments. To study for this area of the General Science section, familiarize yourself with basic ecological functions, ecological systems, and how changes in weather patterns, migratory patterns, and organism alteration affect the ecology.

      Biosphere—the parts of the Earth in which life exists; keep in mind that “bio-” refers to life.

      Biome— a group of land ecosystems sharing similar organisms and climates.

      Ecosystem—a group of living and nonliving parts living in the same environment that interact together.

      Community—the interaction of all populations in a specific area.

      Population—a group of organisms living together and from the same species.

      Ecology Classification Terms

      Producers—an organism can produce its own food (ex: plants)

      Decomposers—organisms breaking down dead animals and plants.

      Scavengers—organisms consuming dead material.

      Consumers—organisms must eat another organism to obtain energy.

      • Primary (herbivores)—consume only plants.
      • Secondary (carnivores)—consume only meat.
      • Tertiary (top carnivores/omnivores)—can eat both plants and meat.

      Consumer Hierarchy and a Food Web

      Representative of an entire ecosystem, a food web can be used to figure out what an animal preys on and who its predators are. The flow of energy from one organism to another is shown through arrows in a food web. The following is an example.

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      Living Thing Classification

      According to a taxonomic structure, living things are classified into domains, kingdoms, phyla, classes, orders, families, genera, and species.

      Domains are the least specific and contain the largest number of organisms. Kingdoms are more specific than domains and contain a smaller number of organisms. Movement from a less specific to a more specific taxonomic level reveals that between organisms within the level, there is a greater similarity.

      There is a mnemonic useful for remembering the taxonomic structure, for example, “King Phillip Came Over For Great Spaghetti”.


      Eukaryota—It’s one of the three domains of life that includes kingdoms such as animals, plants, and fungi. All organisms in this domain are eukaryotic, which means that their cells have a nucleus.

      Bacteria and Archaea—All of the organisms in these domains are considered prokaryotes, which means that their cells are lacking in a nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria or ribosomes.

      Earth and Space Science


      Geology is the study of the earth, covering small applications such as the formation of minute rock and mineral formations, as well as large applications such as seismic shifts and the formation of mountains. Geology questions will likely be small which involve different types of minerals and natural formations such as mountains, plains, plateaus, and canyons. Just a rudimentary understanding of such structures and their creation will be enough.

      Earth Structure

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      The Earth is made up of layers, each with its own set of properties and functions. The center of the Earth is the inner core, which is a solid, mainly metallic sphere of iron and nickel. Surrounding this is the outer core that is mainly liquid metal. Surrounding this is the mantle which is a semisolid rock region. Between the mantle and the crust, there is a layer of moving plates upon which the crust is held. The continents and seas are situated upon the crust.


      Formed by the upper mantle and crust, the lithosphere is a collection of major plates upon which the crust sits. Due to pressure below the surface of the Earth, the exchange of heat between the crust and mantle as well as the composition of these layers, the plates upon which the crust rests move. This process is continental drift and it explains the transition from the Pangea’s unified geography to the current separation of the continents.

      The boundaries between the plates are subjected to heavy friction and geologic activity. Volcanoes and earthquakes are associated with the boundaries between tectonic plates.


      The three main types of rocks are igneous rock, sedimentary rock, and metamorphic rock.

      Magma or lava cools forming igneous rock. A majority of the crust of the Earth is made up of igneous rock. Sedimentary rock is made up of inorganic material and smaller sediments. When igneous or sedimentary rocks are exposed and altered by changes in temperature or pressure, metamorphic rock is formed.


      The atmospheric, carbon, nitrogen, rock, and water cycles are the major cycles of the earth. 

      Changes in the air pressure in the atmosphere are caused by changes in the Earth’s temperature, leading to the atmospheric cycle. This cycle is responsible for the planet’s dynamic weather.

      The carbon cycle involves the passage of carbon through the ground,  water, and atmosphere. Like nitrogen and water, carbon is necessary for the survival of life.

      The nitrogen cycle entails the transformation of nitrogen into numerous forms that can be used. Although nitrogen makes up a large part of the atmosphere, it must first be converted into a different form in order for higher-order organisms to use it.

      The rock cycle describes how the three rock types transform from one to the other. These transformations occur when a rock experiences a change in external surroundings.

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      The water cycle describes the movement of water to the atmosphere by evaporation and then from the atmosphere to the ground by precipitation.

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      Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere and the ongoing changes occurring within the atmosphere. Much of meteorology aim at predicting future weather and climate trends based on the current weather and climate.

      Meteorologists study variables like air temperature, wind speed, air pressure, and humidity, as well as their interactions to derive conclusions about the atmosphere’s future conditions.

      The Earth’s Atmosphere

      asvab general science

      The atmosphere of the Earth is a layer of gasses surrounding Earth and making suitable conditions for life. Earth’s atmosphere has five layers: (extending outward) troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere. The air pressure decreases when you extend outward into space since each layer will be less affected by Earth’s gravity.


      Weather fronts have three types: stationary, warm, and cold. A stationary front is one that is stationary. A warm-cold air mass and a cold air mass meet each other and do not move. In a warm air front, a warm air mass collides with and rides over a cold air mass, which leads to long periods of precipitation and higher temperatures. A cold air mass is where a cold mass of air collides with a warm air mass, the warm air is pushed upward resulting in colder temperatures and the formation of thunderstorms and tornadoes.


      Clouds are structures formed from water condensation. Three main types of cloud are stratus, cumulus, and cirrus.

      Stratus—These are clouds that appear at low elevation. They largely spread out over a large area and they typically signal precipitation.

      Cumulus—These are clouds that are fluffy and at medium-level. They appear flat on the bottom. With the ​​exception of dark bottoms that signal rain, they usually signal fair weather.

      Cirrus—These are clouds that are high and wispy. They consist of ice crystals and typically signal fair weather.

      Astronomy and the Solar System

      Astronomy is the study of celestial objects, or to put it another way, the study of the sky and heavenly bodies. Focus on simple facts and figures regarding the universe and its occupants when studying for this section of the general science test.

      Our Solar System

      For example, a knowledge of all planets in the Solar System, as well as differences between different types of stars, moons, and planets, is pivotal. You should also spend time studying the impact of planetary movements on the Earth and other members of the Solar System, such as how planets revolve around the Earth, what day and night are for, and so on.

      Our solar system is made up of the Sun and all of the space objects (primarily the eight planets) that orbit it. Given its massive size, the Sun exerts a strong gravitational force on the objects that orbit it.

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      There are eight planets in order from closest to the Sun that are respectively Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Depending on its distance from the Sun, each planet has its own gravity and surrounding environment that differs.

      Effects of the Earth’s Position

      The relationship between the Earth’s tilt along its axis and its orbit around the Sun causes seasons. Lunar and solar eclipses are two phenomena that occur as a result of the Earth’s position in respect to the Moon and the Sun.

      Lunar eclipse—This is when the Earth comes between the full Moon and the Sun. At this time, the rays of the Sun are blocked from illuminating the Moon.

      Solar eclipse—This occurs when the Moon goes between the Sun and the Earth, casting a shadow on the Earth. The frequency of solar eclipses is substantially lower than that of lunar eclipses.

      Physical Science


      Measurement is the means we use to quantify the world around us. Time, distance, weight, force, and charge are all described with agreed-upon measurements: seconds, meters, kilograms, newtons, and coulombs, respectively. Measurements not only help add importance and significance to studies of science but also assist us in better describing the relationships between the phenomena occurring in our world.

      Instruments such as rulers, microscopes, and thermometers are used to make measurements. Measurements can be limited by accuracy and precision. The accuracy of an instrument refers to how closely it can match the true measurement. The consistency with which a certain measurement can be duplicated is known as precision. The less consistent a device is, the less precise it is.


      Physics is the study of the nature of energy and matter, attempting to come up with an explanation for the phenomena taking place ranging in scale from the cosmic to the subatomic.

      Mass and Weight

      Despite being very closely related, mass and weight do not represent the same quantity. The amount of matter contained in an object determines its mass; this measurement is not dependent on any external force. The weight of an object refers to how much gravity influences its mass. The following is a handy formula for memorizing the mass-weight relationship: 

      asvab general science

      in which w is weight, m is mass, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. This is:

      asvab general science

      at the surface of the Earth, but it varies elsewhere.


      An object experiences motion when it undergoes a change in location over a period of time. To find the speed of an object, take the ratio of the distance traveled with the length of time required to do so. This quantity reflects the velocity if a direction is also involved (remember that vectors are quantities that contain a direction and a magnitude).

      Velocity is the rate of changing the position of an object. Acceleration is the rate of changing the velocity of an object. Objects that move at a constant speed or at rest undergo no acceleration. Objects that undergo freefall only experience acceleration due to gravity.

      Displacement is measured in meters, acceleration is measured in meters per second squared or meters per second per second, and velocity is measured in meters per second. Acceleration is related to mass and force through the equation:

      asvab general science

      in which:

      • F is the force. It is measured in newtons (N), 
      • m is the mass. It is measured in kilograms, and 
      • a is the acceleration.


      Energy is the capacity needed to perform work. Work is defined as a force exerted over a distance in the direction of the force. For energy and work, both of them are measured in joules (J). Power is the rate that energy is being used and is equal to work divided by time and it’s measured in watts. According to the conservation law of energy, energy is neither created nor destroyed but rather only being transformed into other forms of energy.

      The total energy in a system equals the sum of the potential and kinetic energy. Kinetic energy is associated with motion and movement whereas potential energy is associated with the relative position of objects within a system.

      Kinetic energy is equivalent to one-half of the product of the mass of an object with the velocity squared:

      asvab general science

      There are numerous potential energy formulas, for example, the potential energy owing to the gravitational pull of the Earth :

      asvab general science

      in which: 

      • m is the mass of the object,
      • g is the acceleration owing to gravity, and 
      • h is the height relative to the ground of the object


      The change in the motion of objects is caused by forces. There are four fundamental forces: the electromagnetic force, the force of gravity, the nuclear weak force, and the nuclear strong force. Forces are measured in newtons (N) or kilogram meters per second squared.

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      The force of gravity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the objects and proportional to the product of the two masses of the system. Similarly, the electromagnetic force between two objects is equivalent to the product of the two charges involved and inversely proportional to the square of their distance.

      The action of forces is described by Newton’s laws of motion.

      Newton’s Laws of Motion

      According to Newton’s first law (often referred to as the “law of inertia”), an object at rest will remain at rest unless it’s acted on by a force and an object in motion will remain in motion unless it’s acted on by another force.

      According to Newton’s second law, force is directly proportional to acceleration, and a mass experiencing a force undergoes acceleration. An equation that summarizes this law is:

      asvab general science

      in which:

      • F is a force, 
      • m is mass, and 
      • a is acceleration

      According to Newton’s third law, action all has an equal and opposite reaction.


      The movement of a wave of pressure through the air or any other medium is referred to as sound. Sound is measured in decibels (dB). The properties of sound are determined by the medium through which sound waves propagate, with some media allowing for quicker travel than others. The speed of sound is slower than the speed of light.

      Hair cells in the human ear respond to the small pressure differentials caused by moving sound waves. The cells are linked to nerves that transmute the original signal and carry it to the brain to be processed. The different sounds are corresponding to different variations of waveforms.

      Electromagnetic Ideas

      Matter includes atoms that are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. These three particles carry a charge (measured in coulombs, C) causing them to undergo a force when they are near an electromagnetic field.

      Neutrons carry no charge and are neutral. Neutrons have no charge and are hence neutral. Protons carry a positive charge. Electrons carry a negative charge.

      Like charges undergo a repulsive force. An electron repels another. Unlike charges undergo an attractive force. A proton is attracted to an electron, and vice versa. Charges generate an electric field surrounding it. Negative charges generate field lines leading toward the charge and positive charges generate field lines leading away from the charge.

      A flow of electrons creates a current, measured in amperes (A). Currents may be harnessed inside of insulated wires to produce power, which can then be utilized to run electronic devices. Currents arise from power sources containing a difference in voltage. It’s measured in volts (V).

      Electrons that are emitted from a voltage source through a circuit seek the positively charged side of the source. A circuit can consist of any number of conductors, which include capacitors, batteries, resistors, and so on.

      The electric force between two charged particles is equal to Coulomb’s constant (roughly asvab general science) times the product of their charges divided by the squared distance between them.


      Optics is the study of light, its properties, and its behavior. The light that we can see or visible light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, of which radio waves and X-rays are also a part. Light exhibits both wave-like and particle properties. Visible light has a range of 740 to 380 nanometers. A color’s wavelength determines its frequency and energy. The smaller the wavelength, the higher the frequency and energy of the color. The longer the wavelength of color, on the other hand, the shorter the frequency and the smaller the corresponding energy.

      Light emitted from a source travels until being absorbed or scattered. Light energy is converted to heat energy at the surface of a material object by absorption, and light is reflected in multiple directions through scattering.

      Light can be reflected as well as refracted. Reflection involves a light ray striking a surface then being bounced off of the surface, generating an angle between the rays. Refraction means bending. This is the process by which a light wave strikes a surface, such as water, and appears bent when viewed through the medium.


      Heat depicts the transfer of energy from higher-temperature objects to lower-temperature ones. An object with high internal energy can transfer a large amount of heat to another object. Like energy, heat is measured in joules. The internal energy of an object is also measured in calories.

      The Four Laws of Thermodynamics:

      0th law: Two thermal equilibrium systems with a third system must all be in equilibrium.

      1st law: An isolated system’s thermal energy is constant.

      2nd law: As time progresses, an isolated system naturally gradually moves to disorder.

      3rd law: When a system’s temperature decreases, its disorder moves toward a constant.

      Methods of Heat Transfer

      Energy cannot be generated or destroyed, but it may be transferred from one object to another object, according to the law of conservation of energy. Heat can be transferred in three different ways: conduction, radiation, and convection.

      Conduction—Conduction is heat transfer through direct contact between the two objects.

      Convection—Convection happens in gases and liquids. In this heat transfer method, warmer particles move to the top, sinking the colder molecules, and heat will move from a warmer area to a cooler one.

      Radiation—It occurs when heat is transferred by electromagnetic waves without the need for matter. For example, when you put your hands near a warm fire and feel its warmth without touching the flames.


      The motion of an electric charge causes magnetism. Surrounding atoms in electron clouds are electrons, negatively charged objects. Magnetic properties arise from the spin of unpaired electrons.

      Magnetic fields are created by electric currents and influence electric charges. Magnets only exist as dipoles with a north and a south pole, unlike electric charges that can exist as an independent charge.

      A straight wire comprising a current produces a magnetic field perpendicular to the current and surrounds the wire in concentric circles. An electric current run through a series of stacked coils (known as a solenoid) creates a magnetic field having a form similar to that generated by a bay magnet.

      Teslas (T) are a unit of measurement for magnetic fields.


      The Periodic Table

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      The periodic table is an ordering of the elements in rows and columns reflecting the differences in atomic structure and the different properties resulting from them. These elements are listed with two numbers and a capital letter. The letter represents the element’s name, the top number denotes the number of protons or its atomic number, and the bottom number denotes the atom’s mass.

      The table’s rows are periods, while the table’s columns are groups. The periodic table may be used to find structural and trend similarities between elements. The table contains properties such as the number of protons, atomic size, ionization energy, and electronegativity.

      Atomic Structure

      asvab general science

      All matter whether liquid, solid, gas, or plasma, is made up of atoms. An atom is made up of neutrons, electrons, and protons. The atomic nucleus is made up of positively charged protons and neutral charge neutrons. The type of atom is defined by the number of protons in the nucleus. With an atomic number of 8, oxygen atoms have eight protons. With an atomic number of 6, carbon owns six protons.

      Negatively charged electrons are existent in electron clouds around the nucleus and are attracted to protons electrically. The number of protons in an atom equals the number of electrons in an atom. The ability to bond and the sorts of bonds that can be formed are determined by the number of electrons around an atom.


      A chemical compound composes distinct chemicals. Table salt (NaCl) is a compound made of one chlorine atom and one sodium atom. Water (H2O) is a compound made of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms.

      Chemical compounds show ionic bonds or covalent bonds. An ionic bond is a bond in which electrons are supplied from one atom to another atom. A covalent bond is one in which the electrons are shared between atoms. 

      Acids and Bases

      Bases and acids are substances that can accept and donate protons from other substances. A base is a substance that accepts protons. An acid is a substance that donates protons. A pH scale is used to measure basicity and acidity. On a pH scale, basicity ranges from least basic at 7.1 to most basic at 14; neutral is pH 7 and corresponds with water; acidity ranges from strongest at 0 to weakest at 6.9.

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      Acids erode metals, neutralize bases, release hydrogen ions (H+) in solution and turn blue litmus paper red.

      Bases neutralize acids, denature proteins, release hydroxide ions (OH−) in solution and turn red litmus paper blue.

      Physical Change

      A physical change to the material is a change in which the material retains its identity despite it no longer appearing as it did before the change. Phase changes like transitioning from liquid to solid or gas are physical changes, not chemical changes.

      For example: breaking an object, tearing paper, and melting ice.

      States of Matter

      The matter is anything that has mass and occupies space and exists in four forms of solid, liquid, gas, and plasma.

      Solid—Solids are matter that have a definite shape and volume. Its molecules are all arranged in an organized and tight pattern.

      Liquid—Since liquids take on the shape of their container, they have a defined volume but an indefinite shape. Particles in liquids are not as packed together as in solids and are faster than those in solids but more densely packed and slower than those in gases.

      Gas—Gases don’t have a defined shape or volume. As they travel in all directions, these particles move the quickest and are the most spread out.

      Plasma—Plasma is the fourth state of matter. It involves a superheated matter in the form of ions. It has no defined shape or volume like in gases and is less dense than solids and liquids.

      asvab general science

      Chemical Change

      A chemical change is a chemical reaction where chemical bonds of products are broken or made to form new chemical substances.

      For example, iron rusting, denaturing proteins, and paper burning into ash.

      A Study Tip

      Above all, remember to study only the fundamentals of each scientific field before taking the ASVAB General Science section. As the exam title implies, the questions will focus on general scientific concepts rather than in-depth or complicated concepts related to many various branches of science. When taking the exam, start with the easy questions and move on to the more difficult ones. This test-taking practice, when paired with regular study of each of the aforementioned subjects, should result in a pleasant testing experience.

        ASVAB Arithmetic Reasoning Study Guide

        The ASVAB Arithmetic Reasoning test measures a candidate’s ability to solve problems representing word problems and delivers mathematical questions and equations. These may not only be simple questions involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division but may also require reasoning skills to determine what is really being asked for and finding the best answer.

        January 1, 2022

        The ASVAB Arithmetic Reasoning test assesses a candidate’s ability to solve problems representing word problems and delivers mathematical questions and equations. These questions may not only include simple addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division, but may also require reasoning skills to determine what is truly being asked for and finding the best answer.

        The CAT-ASVAB (computerized version) contains 16 questions and takes 39 minutes to complete; the paper-and-pencil version has 30 questions completed in 36 minutes.

        Arithmetic Reasoning Concepts

        The following arithmetic concepts are included in your exam:

        Arithmetic: This concentrates on basic arithmetic such as addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication.

        Percentages:  This kind of question relates to calculating cost price, sale price, discount, etc.

        Ratio and proportion: Ratio/proportion-related questions are solved by using simple formulas.

        Interest:  Interest-related questions may require more complicated formulas.

        Numbers: This asks for your knowledge of whole numbers, decimals, real numbers, fractions, and imaginary numbers, etc.

        The Arithmetic Reasoning section is used to calculate your Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) score so you should get a good score on this section. Take the Arithmetic Reasoning ASVAB practice test as much as possible to familiarize yourself with the test format and determine clearly your strength and weakness. 

        These word problems may have some technical terms, besides basic terms, such as area, perimeter, integer, or ratio, which are expected to be common mathematical knowledge. When solving Arithmetic Reasoning questions, you must pay attention not only to the numbers mentioned in the problem but also to the wording, the format of the paragraph, buzzwords, and more.

        ASVAB Arithmetic Reasoning Tips

        Finding “buzzwords”

        These words or phrases of emphasis indicate the action you will need to solve the problem. For example, if a problem mentions “difference” or “fewer” or “take away”, it may require you to use subtraction, while some words like “times” or “product” or “double” may stand for multiplication. Before solving the problems, make sure you carefully read and identify what process it requires. It will show you the direction you should take to solve the overall equation.

        Identify numbers

        Word problems can be simple with an addition or subtraction of 2 numbers, or they can include more complex numbers and operations. Pay your attention to all the given numbers and figures within the body of the paragraph. Read carefully these numbers, and then determine which of the numbers are relevant to solve the problem and which of them are misleading you. 

        Make sure you perform them in the right order. 6 – 8 and 8 – 6 bring two very different results and may affect your pass or fail. Be as careful as possible with the number to avoid unnecessary mistakes. 

        Paragraph Format

        When dealing with the Arithmetic Reasoning section, you should notice that many word problems may contain irrelevant information that is used as a filler to distract you from the real question being asked. You must learn to scan all over the problem, disregard this misleading verbiage and focus on the portions that will help you answer the problem. Just because something is included in a paragraph doesn’t mean that it is important and must be used.

        By identifying the format and context of the paragraph combining with the buzzwords and numbers, you can build a completed, simplified equation. Be sure that you select all necessary information, make a proper equation, and solve it. 

        If you run into a problem that stumps you, skip it to move ahead to another one and then come back to it if you have time. Do not waste too much time on a problem, try to quickly solve the other questions that you are certain about it.

        Steps to solving a word problem

        Here is the suggested route to answer the questions in the ASVAB Arithmetic Reasoning test.

        Carefully read the problem

        Because of the limited time, you may push yourself to solve a problem quickly. This easily leads to a disaster of failing the test. Word problems can be tricky, so you have to thoroughly read each to identify exactly what is being asked for.

        Determine the method used to answer

        After thoroughly understanding the problem, you’ll need to gather all the relevant data from the problem and decide what is the best way to solve the question it is asking. 

        Setup the equations

        Once you have determined the method used to answer, you need to set all the relevant data into an equation that will lead you to the correct answer.

        Solve equations and review results

        When you have the equations for the question, solve it to find the final result. Then quickly review to make sure there is no regretful mistake in the solving progress. 

        Basic Arithmetic Review

        Before starting practicing the Arithmetic problems, let’s review all the basic definitions, properties, and Arithmetic Reasoning formulas you may need in the ASVAB Arithmetic.

        Types of Numbers


        Natural numbers (i.e. counting numbers) are numbers that are used for counting and ordering. They can be expressed mathematically as {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, …}

        Even Number

        Even numbers are natural numbers that are divisible by 2. 

        2ℕ = { 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, … }

        Odd Number

        Odd numbers are natural numbers that are not divisible by 2. 

        2ℕ + 1 = { 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15…} 

        Prime Number

        A prime number is a number greater than 1 that is only divisible by 1 and by itself.


        2, 3, 7, and 11 are prime numbers

        P = { 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19,…}

        Composite Number

        Composite numbers are the product of some prime numbers. For example:

        8 = 2 ⋅ 2⋅ 2

        10 = 2 ⋅ 5


        In mathematics, the whole numbers are the basic counting numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, … and so on.


        An integer number includes all positive whole numbers (a positive integer), and negative whole numbers (a negative integer), or zero.

        asvab arithmetic reasoning

        We can put that all together like this:

        Integers = { …, −4, −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, … }


        Fraction/rational number is a ratio of two integer numbers in the form of A/B, where A and B are integers and B#0.

        A is called Numerator

        B is called Denominator


        Real numbers that cannot be written as the quotient of two

        integers but can be represented on the number line.


        -2√3 , √2, π


        Include all numbers that can be represented on the number

        line, that is, all rational and irrational numbers.

        The Basic Number Properties

        Four basic properties of numbers include commutative, associative, distributive, and identity. You should familiarize yourself with each of these before taking the Arithmetic Reasoning subtest.

        Properties of addition

        Identity Property of Zero

        a + 0 = a

        Inverse Property

        a + (-a) = 0 

        Commutative Property

        When adding two numbers together, the outcome (sum) is the same regardless of the order the numbers are placed in.

        a + b = b + a

        For example, the two following equations end up with the same result:

        4 + 6 = 10 or 6 + 4 = 10

        Associative Property

        When adding multiple numbers together, the outcome (sum) is the same regardless of the order the numbers are placed in.

        (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) 

        Properties of subtractions


        Unlike addition, the order of two numbers in subtraction changes all the results. In other words, the subtrahend and minuend are distinct factors when subtracting and they cannot be switched order-wise (except subtrahend and minuend are equal).

        a – b # b – a

        For example :

        8 – 6 = 2 is not the same as 6 – 8 = -2


        When subtracting multiple numbers, the order of the numbers does matter. Subtracting numbers in different orders will result in different outcomes. 

        Properties of multiplication

        • Property of Zero

        a × 0 = a

        • Identity Property of One

        a × 1 = a, where a # 0

        • Inverse Property

        a × 1/a  = 1, where a # 0

        • Commutative Property

        When multiplying two numbers together, the product is the same regardless of the order the numbers are placed in.

        a × b = b × a

        For example, the two following equations end up with the same result:

        2 × 3 = 6 or 3 × 2 = 6

        Associative Property :

        When multiplying multiple numbers together, the product is the same regardless of the order the numbers are placed in.

        (a × b) × c = a × (b × c)

        For example :

        (2 × 3) × 4 = 2 × (3 × 4) = 24

        Properties of division

        Property of Zero

        0/a = 0, when a # 0.

        Property of One

        a/a = 1 when a # 0

        Identity Property of One

        a/1 = a × 1.

        Absolute Value

        The absolute value of a number is always greater than 0. 

        If a > 0, |a| = a. 

        If a < 0, |a| = a. 

        For example, |8| = 8 and |-8| = 8. In each case, the answer is positive.

        Order of Operations 

        Step 1 : Parentheses – Simplify any expressions inside parentheses. 

        Step 2 : Exponents (Powers, Roots) – Work out any exponents. 

        Step 3 : Multiply or Divide before you Add or Subtract

        Step 4 : Addition and Subtraction These are done last, working from left to right.

        For example:

        10 – 8 × 4 + (6 ÷ 3) + 5 × 23 

        = 10 – 8 × 4 + 2 + 5 × 8

        = 10 – 32 + 2 + 40

        = 20

        >> More: General Science ASVAB Study Guide


        Adding and subtracting with negatives

        – a – b = (-a) + (-b)

        – a + b = b – a

        a – (-b) = a + b 


        – 2 – 3 = (-2) + (-3) = -5

        – 2 + 5 = 5 – 2 = 3

        2 – (-3) = 2 + 3 = 5

        Multiplying and dividing with negatives

        -a × b = -ab

        -a × -b = ab

        (-a)/(-b) = a/b, b # 0

        (-a)/b = -a/b, b # 0


        -2 × 3 = -6

        -2 × -3 = 6

        (-2)/(-3) = ⅔

        (-2)/3 = -⅔


        Fractions are another way to express division. The top number of a fraction is called the numerator, and the bottom number is called the denominator.

        Least common multiple

        The LCM of a set of numbers is the smallest number that is a multiple of all the given numbers. For example, the LCM of 5 and 6 is 30, since 5 and 6 have no factors in common. 

        Greatest common factor

        The GCF of a set of numbers is the largest number that can be evenly divided into each of the given numbers. For example, the GCF of 24 and 27 is 3, since both 24 and 27 are divisible by 3, but they are not both divisible by any numbers larger than 3. 

        Adding and subtracting fractions

        Fractions must have the same denominator before they can be added or subtracted.

        asvab arithmetic reasoning 2

        If the fractions have different denominators, rewrite them as equivalent fractions with a common denominator. Then add or subtract the numerators, keeping the denominators the same. For example :

        asvab arithmetic reasoningarithmetic reasoning formula

        Multiplying and dividing fractions

        When multiplying and dividing fractions, a common denominator is not needed. To multiply, take the product of the numerators and the product of the denominators :

        asvab arithmetic study guide

        Example :

        ⅔ × ⅛ = (2 × 1 )/(3 × 8) = 2/24 = 1/12

        To divide fractions, invert the second fraction and then multiply the numerators and denominators :

        arithmetic reasoning

        ⅔ ÷ ⅛ = (2 × 8)/(3 × 1) = 16/3.

        Read more >> ASVAB Math Study Guide

        To prepare the Arithmetic Reasoning component of the ASVAB, go to our homepage and take our free ASVAB practice test 2022. We hope our ASVAB Study Guide 2022 will help you learn everything you need to know for your upcoming exam!

          Assembling Objects ASVAB study guide

          Our Assembling Objects ASVAB study guide will show you all the information as well as tips and tricks to do well in your real exam. Let's check out now!

          January 1, 2022

          The ASVAB Assembling Objects test was created in 2004 and is primarily used as a score to determine a candidate’s eligibility for the US Navy. This ASVAB shape test will determine which military professions you are qualified for, rather than calculating your Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) score. We’ve created an Assembling Objects ASVAB study guide and created free ASVAB practice test 2022 accessible to help you prepare for and pass this subtest of the military selection test.

          What is the ASVAB Assembling Objects test for?

          The Assembling Objects subtest is intended to quantify your capacity to take a gander at bits of an object and decide how those pieces should fit together (actually called picturing spatial connections). Spatial abilities, which help individuals sort out maps and decipher specialized drawings, are critical to ordinary living just as for performing admirably in school and at work. Society today puts more prominent requests on spatial abilities, like a translation of diagrams, maps, building drawings, and X-beams.

          The Assembling Objects subtest of the CAT-ASVAB comprises 16 graphical issues that should be settled shortly; the paper variant of the ASVAB has 25 inquiries to be tackled quickly. That gives you somewhat less than a moment for each question (not including any time you take out to scratch your head). That is a lot of time to complete in case you’re acceptable at jigsaw puzzles.

          All things considered, there are available resources to improve your score for the coming test. Here in this article, we dig profound into the sorts of inquiries posed, the test-taking tips you should apply, and how you can deal with getting ready for the test in the coming many months. 

          Read more >> ASVAB Word Knowledge Study Guide

          Getting the Picture about Assembling Objects ASVAB

          The Assembling Objects subtest is generally new to the ASVAB. It was added when the ASVAB was last overhauled when the Numerical Operations and Coding Speed subtests were erased. First, it was added uniquely to the electronic adaptation of the ASVAB, and afterward, it was added to the paper selection form about a year later. In case you’re taking the secondary school rendition of the ASVAB or the in-administration variant (Armed Forces Classification Test), you will not see this subtest.

          At the hour of this composition, just the Navy utilizes the score from the Assembling Objects subtest for work capability purposes. Also, just a small bunch of evaluations (what the Navy calls occupations) require a score around there. Different branches don’t utilize the consequences of this subtest by any means, however, they may later on.

          The end result is that except if you’re intending to join the Navy, in one of just a modest bunch of Navy enrolled occupations, you can securely disregard this whole section. 

          Two Types of Assembling Objects Questions 

          Connection Issues

          In this kind of problem, you will be given a progression of shapes and requested to associate these shapes along with specked lines. Your assignment is to pick the drawing that shows what the parts may really resemble after they’re connected or on the other hand associated appropriately.

          Here are some samples in our Assembling objects ASVAB practice questions:

          The problem asks you choose the figure that shows the shapes connected correctly.

          Assembling Objects ASVAB study guide
          Assembling Objects ASVAB Study Guide

          In this problem, the correct answer is B. Rotate the speech cloud 180 degrees, you’ll get the shape in answer B.

          Puzzle Quiz

          In this problem, you will be given a split-up shape and requested to gather the pieces to unite that shape back once more.  Numerous individuals may track down the second sort of Assembling Objects issue simpler than the association issues. This sort of issue is actually similar to a jigsaw puzzle, aside from it doesn’t bring about an image of the Statue of Liberty or a guide of the United States.

          For example, you may be asked “Which of these images best solves the problem in the first picture?”

          Assembling Objects ASVAB study guide
          Assembling Objects ASVAB Study Guide
          • The correct answer is C. There are four pieces in the assembled puzzle, then we eliminate choice D. Two of the pieces are parallelogram, only choice C is accepted.

          The trouble lies in the way that you can’t utilize your hands to curve the pieces around on the table to perceive how they fit. You need to pivot and move the pieces intellectually.

          Read more >> ASVAB Mechanical Comprehension Study Guide

          Tips for the Assembling Objects Subtest

          In the after areas, there are a few hints for improving your score on the Assembling Objects subtest. Procedures for wiping out wrong answers during the test are one of the best tips to solve this kind of problem.

          On the Assembling Objects subtest, you can improve your chances of finding the right solution by selecting only one shape from the principal drawing and, rapidly take a gander at every answer choice to see whether that shape appears. This action can assist you with eliminating answer decisions that are clearly off-base.

          On association type issues, note the situation of the dot on one of the shapes in the main drawing and afterward rapidly filter the potential answers. Eliminating any decision that has the spot in an alternate area or that shows the line going through the shape at an unexpected point in comparison to what appeared in the primary drawing.

          You can practice with our hundreds of Assembling objects practice questions to get ready for your coming exam. Take our free ASVAB practice tests 2022 now!

          Tips to Improve your spatial abilities

          We will indicate several ways to improve your spatial abilities by taking part in exercises that are spatially orientated.

          Working on understanding guides: Map perusing can assist you with building up the capacity to measure sizes of size and bearing between related items (streets, waterways, towns, urban areas, etc).

          Assembling jigsaw baffles: This way is an undeniable type of training for improving your spatial insights.

          Playing puzzle games on the web: Many riddle games at free web-based game locales practice the ability to recognize spatial connections and visual likenesses.

          Playing graphical PC games: Playing graphical PC games: Playing computer games can help you improve your spatial ability. Children who played PC games consistently performed higher on spatial inclination tests than children who did not play the games, according to a study conducted in the United Kingdom.

          Drawing: Look at an object or a picture and endeavor to outline it as seen from an alternate view. This practice can help you improve your ability to intellectually envision points.

          Following this ASVAB study guide, you can test your ability with our free Assembling objects ASVAB practice questions. Visit our homepage now to take more ASVAB practice tests or read more ASVAB Study Guide for all 9 ASVAB Sections!

            ASVAB Electronics Information Study Guide

            Our ASVAB Electronics Information Study Guide including general information from basic electrical symbols and functions to electrical wiring and the like.

            January 1, 2022

            The general information in our ASVAB Electronics Information Study Guide ranges from basic electrical symbols and functions to electrical wiring and other topics. This is one of the general topics covered in the ASVAB Electronics section. It’s worth mentioning that while certain subjects may seem familiar, it’s critical to learn more about the fundamentals of electronics, such as how circuits operate, the primary definition of electric current, conductors, and circuits, and the utilization of Ohm’s law.

            Relatively, various questions on analytical vocabulary and the ability to intuitively comprehend simple electrically-inclined concepts make up such sections of the study guide. Bear in mind that upon studying the ASVAB electronics study guide, do magnify more on the very foundation of the topic and avoid neglecting even the simplest conditions as this would substantiate the concept definitions which would be mentioned in the succeeding sub-topics and outlines of the study guide. 

            The information below will show you some basic concepts you may meet in your ASVAB electronics test.

            ASVAB Electronics Information Study Guide
            ASVAB Electronics Information Study Guide


            The Electronics Information ASVAB measures your understanding of electrical equipment and parts, including electricity principles, circuits, currents, radio, batteries, resistors, etc. On the CAT-ASVAB, you will be asked 16 questions in 8 minutes. On the paper-and-pencil version, you have to answer 20 questions in 9 minutes.

            Concept of Flowing Electrons

            Like an electric current, this describes the manner with what concurrently occurs upon noting an excess of electrons that moves from the negative origin (−) to an area that has a deficit in electrons commonly known as the positive origin (+). Subsequently, the flow of electrons is reflective of the repulsive and attractive forces between varying charged components.


            It is a path that permits electricity to flow from one area to another. Regardless of consisting electrical components, the flow remains unobstructed by a break or gap in the circuit. More so, through utilization conducting materials, along with insulated wires, attached to and connecting both terminals forms a certain circuit. 

            A prime example that embodies a simple circuit is a battery-based flashlight. Upon pressing the ON button switch of the flashlight, it allows interaction between two contact strips, which initiates an electrical flow, conducted from the battery. The batteries are connected in such a way that the charges from the batteries then flow to the bulb eventually lighting it up.

            Open and Closed Circuits

            The components of a closed circuit are connected which allows the flow of electrons through conducting wires or materials towards a voltage sequence. On top of this, a gap in the circuit may hinder the connection to properly function. In simple terms, an open circuit won’t work while a closed circuit can. 


            It is an electrical component or part of a circuit that drains electric power. This includes home appliances that harness electricity. The load may also be denoted as the power consumed by a circuit. It is the opposite of a power source as a load only dispels charge from a circuit but doesn’t yield power.

            Series Circuit

            It is a type of circuit that consists of a single path in which the whole current traverses from one component to another. It is only through each linear component in the series circuit where the current would categorically flow. More so, series circuits have the same current that runs through each component in the process. 

            The sum of the circuit’s resistivity is the sum in each component’s voltage drops and is the sum of the total voltage and total resistance in a series circuit, respectively. Equivalent resistance which is denoted by Req is the sum of each resistance in the circuit. Considering that there is only a single currency in the process, the term Req is usually used in calculating series circuits through Ohm’s Law.

            Parallel Circuit

            This type of circuit comprises multiple paths through which the current passes. With that separation of paths, the current’s power may vary. Regardless of the separated paths, the voltage drop remains the same across the remaining branches. 

            Unlike a series circuit, if a gap or break is observed in a parallel circuit or simply disconnected, the division will not hinder the current to pass through the other branches.

            The parallel circuit’s equivalent resistance is exemplified as:


            where 1Req and R1 to R3 serve as the equivalent resistance, first resistor, second resistor, third resistor, and so on. 

            ASVAB Electronics Information Study Guide
            ASVAB Electronics Information Study Guide

            Electrical Power

            It is a quantified scaling of the degree of work made by a circuit through a unit of time. Along it is formulas that calculate the electrical power dispersed or produced in the process such as:




            in which P is Power, I is Current, R is Resistance, and V is Voltage. 

            Take note that, it is the voltage source where power is generated and subsequently, dissipated by consisting loads.

            Electrical Units of Measurement

            Amperes—measures electrical current.

            Ohms—measures resistivity. 

            Watts—measures electrical power. 

            Volts—measures voltage. 

            Metric Prefixes

            nano- is 110^−9, micro- is 110^-6, milli- is 110^−3, centi- is 110^−2, kilo- is 110^3 and mega- is 110^6, and giga- is 110^9

            Read more >> ASVAB Arithmetic Reasoning Study Guide

            Subatomic Particles and Valence Shell

            Every single object in the universe consists of basic infinitesimal particles termed atoms. Each atom has its own unique behaviors that depend on its internal foundation. They are composed of three smaller particles namely; protons, electrons, and neutrons. An element known as hydrogen is composed of a single proton but when it is added with another proton, it then becomes helium and so on.  If there is, however, a different number of neutrons inside the atomic nucleus, then it is signified as an isotope.

            The Three Subatomic particles

            Proton– is positively charged and weighs 1.673 x 10^-27

            Electron– is negatively charged and weighs 9.11 x 10^-31

            Neutron– has a neutral charge and weighs 1.675 x 10^-27

            It’s worth noting that protons and neutrons constitute a vast majority of the atom’s mass. While electrons are much smaller than protons and neutrons, it co-exists inside the surrounding energy orbitals. When electrons are farthest from the nucleus, they are the most reactive to certain bonds.

            Conductivity, Semi-conductivity, and Insulator

            Conductivity is a measurement of quantified ease when material permits electric current to flow through it. Inversely, electrical resistivity measures the contradicting force when a material resists the flow of electric current.

            Relatively, a conductor is a material that gives minimal resistance to the electric current. One good example is metal due to the lesser resistance during the electron flow process.  Materials that possess high resistance are called insulators which also exhibit very low conductivity.

            Between insulators and conductors are Semiconductors that have abilities in between both components. Such that when heated, semiconductors increase in conductivity while conductors experience increased resistivity.


            It is the amount of charge per unit of time that passes through a specific circuit. Such that,

             I= Δq/Δt

             It is measured in Coulombs per second, or Amperes(A),

            1 Ampere= 1 coulomb/second

             Current, voltage and resistance are related to each other through Ohm’s Law:


            where I is current, V is voltage, and R is resistance.


            It is a charged pressure that pushes electrons to move in a circuit. Voltage is a quantitative expression of electric potential difference between two charged points in an electric field. It is measured in Volts (v).

            Also known as electromotive force, it is the force responsible for pushing the current through a circuit. It is somewhat similar to a difference in charged pressure due to the higher concentration of charge at one point of the components. This certain difference in concentrated charge results in a ‘voltage’.


            It is a property of certain naturally insulated materials that impedes the channel of current procured by a conductor. To put it simply in perspective, conductivity and resistivity are inversely related.  Resistance is measured in Ohms.

            R=⍴⋅LA, where represents the resistivity of the conductor, L is the length or distance, and A is the cross-sectional area.


            It is defined as the manifestation of a phenomenon driven by electrostatic charges. More so, a magnetic field can instigate charged particles to make electricity, and there the properties of magnets are collectively known for having the potential capacity to draw electricity from the attraction and repulsion forces situated in opposite poles.

            ASVAB Electronics Information Practice Questions

            Following our ASVAB Electronics Information study guide and free ASVAB Electronics Information practice test will ensure that you are well prepared for the big day. Thousands of ASVAB practice questions combined with our unique gamified learning technique will help you significantly enhance your knowledge and pass your ASVAB test with ease.

            To strengthen all of your skills, take our free ASVAB practice test 2022 or read more ASVAB Study Guide for all 9 ASVAB subject areas.

            Read more >> ASVAB General Science Study Guide 1

              ASVAB Math Study Guide

              Our ASVAB Math study guide encompasses the simple to complex nature of mathematically-inclined concepts including fractions, percentages, certain math properties, basic algebra, exponents, and logarithms. Do take your time to thoroughly read each topic and understand the given examples.

              January 1, 2022

              The ASVAB Mathematics Knowledge section assesses your understanding of a wide range of math areas, concluding algebra and geometry. It’s available in two formats: computerized (CAT-ASVAB) and paper-and-pencil (CAT-ASVAB). The CAT ASVAB math test comprises 16 questions and you have 20 minutes to finish it. There are 25 questions to answer in 24 minutes in the paper-and-pencil version.

              Calculators are not authorized in the Mathematics Knowledge part. The best way to prepare for the test is to familiarize yourself with as many Math Formulas for the ASVAB as possible. This test’s score is contributed to your AFQT score and affects your percentile rank directly. Make sure you’re completely prepared for this section before taking the real test.

              What kind of math is on the ASVAB?

              Our ASVAB Math study guide encompasses the simple to complex nature of mathematically-inclined concepts including fractions, percentages, certain math properties, basic algebra, exponents, and logarithms. Do take your time to thoroughly read each topic and understand the given examples.

              ASVAB Math Study Guide
              ASVAB Math Study Guide



              Multiplication of Fractions

              Try to recall these simple fractional terms:

              asvab mathematics knowledge study guide

              Where the variable above the fraction is called the Numerator and the variable below is called the Denominator.

              To try this out, let’s try multiplying these fractions:

              asvab mathematics knowledge study guide

              We first multiply the numerators and then the denominators to find the answer. 

              Take Note:

              Try to always reduce the result to its lowest possible terms. Given this example, both numerator and denominator don’t have common factors thus, this fraction can no longer be reduced. 

              Division of Fractions

              For example:

              asvab math study guide

              This can be done by changing the division sign (÷) into a multiplication sign (×) and then reciprocating the second number.  

              asvab math

              Like the example given above, this case cannot further be reduced.


              Mixed Fractions 

              A fundamental way to deal with mixed fractions is by turning them into an improper fraction which is a different kind of fraction that has a greater numerator than the denominator.

              Supposed that we have this mixed fraction:

              asvab math mixed fractions

              We can convert it through the multiplication of the whole number(3) with the denominator(4) and subsequently, adding the product of the latter with the numerator( 3).

              asvab math mixed fractions

              As a result, the denominator from the first mixed fraction will be the same as the improper fraction. 

              Improper to Mixed Fraction Conversion

              As we see from the preceding examples, we’ve converted a mixed fraction (known as mixed number) to an improper fraction. But now, we’ll learn about the reciprocal of the matter. 

              Let’s try this example:


              We can simply convert it by dividing the numerator with the denominator. 

              asvab math mixed fractions 3

              Meaning, we first divide 7 with 12 resulting in 1 then bring down 5. After this, you’ll put the remainder which is 5 beside the quotient (1) in a fraction manner as a numerator and retain the denominator which is 7. 


              The percentage formula is utilized when expressing a number between one and zero. More so, it is used to know the parts of a whole in a more specific way. Denoted with the symbol (%), it is primarily used to determine and compare the ratios.

              Percentage(P) = (IV ⁄ TV) × 100, where IV is the initial or pre-given value and TV is the total value.

              Sample problem:

              In a singing competition, there are 20 contestants. Out of them, 11 are boys. Determine the percentage of boys in the said contest.


              Total number of contestants in the class = 20

              No. of Boys in the competition = 11

              % of boys in the competition = (11 ⁄ 20) × 100 = (1100 ⁄ 2000) = 0.55 or 55%

              Read more >> Free ASVAB Auto and Shop Information Study Guide 2022

              Basic Properties of Numbers

              Generally, there are four properties of numbers: associative, commutative, identity, and distributive. Such properties are important rudiments upon advancing to a higher level of mathematics.

              Associative Property

              Addition: When two or more numbers undergo addition or multiplication, regardless of the way they are arranged, the sum will remain unchanged.

              5 + (4 + 1) = 10 or (5 + 4) + 1 = 10 

              Commutative Property

              Multiplication. When two numbers undergo multiplication or addition, regardless of their group, their product or sum remains the same.

               8 x 6 = 48 or 6 x 8 = 48

              Identity Property 

              1. Addition and Subtraction. The sum and difference, respectively of any value with zero being that number

              5 + 0 = 5 , 5-0=5

              2. Multiplication and Division. The product and quotient of any value with one being that number. 

              15 x 1 = 15, 15/1= 15

              Distributive Property

               This property entails the solution in an expression such as a(b + c) or literally following the PEMDAS rule.

               3 x (4 + 5) = 27 or 3 x 4 + 3 x 5 = 27


              It is the study of mathematical symbols along with rules encapsulating variables with distinct contexts and is also referred to as the backbone of mathematics.

              Solving for x in a Basic Equation

              Oftentimes, we get to solve x in every exam or test given by our teacher or professor. Basically, the main objective is to get the value of x through ‘reverse PEMDAS manipulation. In other words, whatever is done on the left side, will also be performed on the right side of the equal sign. 

              Sample Problem:

              x + 7 = 10

              With this, we are trying to determine the possible x value that when subtracted to 7, will have a difference of 10. This may be logically easy but we’ll try getting the x value by itself. For that to happen, we have to remove 7 from the left side by subtracting 7 on both sides. 

              x + 7 = 10

              x + 7 – 7 = 10 – 7

              x = 3

              Determining the x value in an Inequality Equation

              The solving process in finding x is similar to an inequality. One thing it differs is that, through division or multiplication by a negative value, the direction of the inequality’s sign changes. 

              Sample Problem:

              2x + 20 ≥ 40

              Like equality’s first step, we start by subtracting 20 on both sides.

              2x + 20 ≥ 40

              2x + 2  −20 ≥ 40 −20

              2x ≥ 20

              After that, we then divide 2 into both sides. The inequality’s direction remains unaffected due to the fact that we’ve divided it with positive value. 

              x ≥ 10


              Generally, it involves two numbers and is used when multiplying a number by itself. More so, it is stated as “a raised to the power of n” or aⁿ

              One example is, 6 cubed:

              = 6 x 6 x 6
              = 216

              Next example, 7 squared:

              = 7 × 7
              = 49

              Take note:

              A value raised to the power of 1 equals itself such as 51= 5 x 1= 5, itself

              A value raised to the power of 0 equals 1 such as 70 = 1

              You can simply subtract the exponents whenever the base is the same such as

              95 / 93
              = 95-3
              = 92

              To check:
              95 = 9 x 9 x 9 x 9 x 9 and 93 = 9× 9× 9
              95 / 93 = (9 x 9 x 9 x 9 x 9) / (9 x 9 x 9)= 9 × 9 = 92

              Square Roots

              To put it simply, the square root is the mathematical inverse of taking a square root, meaning —square root “nullifies” squared values.

              Let’s try, 4 squared or 42

              42 = 4 × 4 = 16

              To put it into perspective, we can figure out what number is necessary to be squared, when we successfully determine the square root of a given number, 

              Advice: Try asking yourself, “What numerical value squared could give us the given value such as 16?


              Logarithm denoted as log(x) serves as the function in contrast to exponentiation, and is referred as the power to which a given value must be raised to obtain the necessary rate. It is widely known as a math operation that figures out the frequency or number of times a certain value termed as a base, undergoes multiplication by itself. It is also used in various statistical methods that track arithmetic processes in a particular mathematical context.

              Common Logarithms

              Mathematically, these are types of logarithms limited to base 10. 

              Also written as:

              asvab math Common Logarithms

              Natural Logarithms

              It is a special form of logarithm in which the base is a constant e, where e is an irrational number. The natural log of a number x is written as:

              asvab math Common Logarithms

              Take note that, ln is the inverse of e.

              Negative Logarithms

              Logarithms don’t usually settle with negative values but this serves as an exemption, such that all values situated between 0 and 1 are deemed as negative algorithms.

              ABC Elearning’s ASVAB Math Practice Test

              Our ASVAB Mathematics Knowledge study guide and free ASVAB math knowledge practice test will assist you in fully comprehending the issues. You may take our practice test as many times as you like in order to improve your knowledge and confidence.

              To fully prepare for your next exam, take more of our ASVAB practice test or read more of our ASVAB Study Guide for all 9 ASVAB parts.

                ASVAB Mechanical Comprehension Study Guide

                Mechanical Comprehension Test is quite different from your topics in high school that is why it is important that you choose your own study material in preparation for this exam. In connection to this, this article will lead you to a comprehensive ASVAB Mechanical Comprehension Study Guide that would best fit your preparation needs for the military.

                January 1, 2022

                The Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) is an examination for military enlistment that contains ten different tests including mechanical comprehension tests. The ASVAB Mechanical Comprehension Test is significantly different from the topics you studied in high school, which is why you should select your own study materials to prepare for this test.

                In this regard, this article will lead you to a thorough ASVAB Mechanical Comprehension Study Guide that will best match your military preparation needs. The complicated lessons on this topic are presented in an easy-to-understand manner.


                ASVAB Mechanical Comprehension Study Guide
                ASVAB Mechanical Comprehension Study Guide


                The ASVAB Mechanical Comprehension test gauges your knowledge of basic mechanical principles and mechanisms. This subtest includes a lot of questions about mechanical operations. To get a good score on this section, it may also require your math skills to answer questions related to mechanical processes by taking calculations based on math formulas.

                The subtest score will not be counted to your AFQT score but it will determine which specific military jobs you are qualified for. On the computerized CAT-ASVAB, you have 20 minutes to finish 16 questions. The paper-and-pencil version includes 25 questions and you have 19 minutes to finish it.


                Mechanics is primarily defined as the description of forces and energies related to moving objects. It is a branch of physics that lets you describe and predict conditions of rest and movement of matter subjected to the action of forces. There are at least four basic components of mechanics—mass, velocity, acceleration, and force.

                Mass is the measure of resistance to force or the total number of atoms in some materials. Velocity pertains to the speed and direction of moving objects. Acceleration, on the other hand, is a change of velocity on an object. However, an object moving at a constant velocity has no acceleration.  Further, force is the energy or strength that is an attribute of movement or physical action. Thus, the force causes acceleration while a change of velocity is a manifestation of force to an object.


                In this part of our ASVAB Mechanical Comprehension Study Guide, we will indicate more specifically Principles of mechanics.

                In applied mechanics, there are at least six fundamental principles that you should remember:

                • Newton’s First Law of Motion

                The very well-known first law of motion states that an object will remain at rest or in uniform motion in a straight line unless compelled to change its state by the action of the external force. This is also known as the Law of Inertia. It claims that unless a net force acts upon the object, it will always remain in a constant velocity.  When the matter is left at rest, it means that it does not have velocity.

                • Newton’s Second Law of Motion

                This law of motion talks about what happens to a massive object when acted upon by an external force. It states that the force acting on an object is equal to the mass of that object times its acceleration. Thus, 

                F=ma, where F is the force, m is the mass, and a is the acceleration

                When outside and a constant force acts on a body, it causes acceleration, thus changing its velocity at a constant rate. It accelerates based on the direction of the force which acted on it. On the other hand, if the object is already at a constant speed, the body might speed up, slow down, or change its direction depending on the intensity and the direction of the external force.

                • Newton’s Third Law of Motion

                This law emphasizes what happens to a body when it exerts a force on another body. It states that for every action, there is always an equal and opposite reaction. Forces usually occur in pairs, which means that a body cannot exert a force on another body without experiencing force itself.

                These laws have been the foundation of many experiments throughout the years. They are also applied in many instances in everyday life. They are considered the basic principles of classical mechanics.

                Read more >> ASVAB Paragraph Comprehension Study Guide


                One concept that is applied to engineering mechanics is friction. Friction is usually defined as the retarding force that acts in contrast with motion when a body moves. It also pertains to the resistance of motion which scientists believe is a result of electromagnetic attraction between charged particles in two contacting surfaces. 

                Types of Friction

                Friction has different types depending on where it has occurred:

                Dry Friction or Coulomb Friction

                This type of friction usually happens when two non-lubricated friction comes in contact and rubs with each other. When friction happens on this, one side may have an effect on its surface.

                Fluid Friction

                This friction happens when two fluids move at various velocities where the relative velocity on the layers causes frictional forces.

                Skin Friction

                Also called friction drag, it is a component of the force which resists the motion of a solid body through a fluid.

                ENERGY, WORK, POWER

                ASVAB Mechanical Comprehension Study Guide 2021


                Energy, work, and power are the three main terms which physics and mechanics often use. Work is done when a force applied to an object has moved the object.  The formula for work is:

                W= F x d; where W is for Work, F is for force, and d is for distance

                The basic unit of work joule is represented by a capital letter J. This unit of measurement was derived from James Prescott Joule.

                On the other hand, Energy is simply defined as the capacity to do work. The formula for potential energy is:

                PE= mgh; where PE is for Potential Energy, m is of mass, g is for the gravitational field, and h is for height. Its unit of measurement is also in Joules.

                Lastly, power is defined as the rate at which work is done. The formula for this is:

                P= W/t; where P is for Power, W is to work, and it is to time

                Its unit of measure is through watt which is represented by a capital letter W.


                The principles of mechanics work with machines. Machines are used to reduce work and force while increasing the product. For instance, a simple machine uses an applied force to work against a single load force. The work done on the load is proportional to the work done with the applied force if the friction losses are ignored. However, the increase in the amount of the output force means the decrease in the distance moved by the load.

                Further, a machine produces force and controls its motion. However, it cannot create energy.


                Gears in simple machines are examples of mechanics. This has a wheel and axle that has teeth around it. They are often used with another set of gear to change the directions of forces. Its size determines the speed at which it rotates. This is often used to increase force or speed.

                ASVAB Mechanical Comprehension Practice Questions

                Start practicing with us right now to prepare for more mechanical questions that may appear on the test. All the ASVAB practice test 2022 on our website are based on previous ASVAB exams and are designed to be as similar to the real exam as possible. Take our free mechanical comprehension practice exam as many times as you need to get 100 percent ready for your big day.

                Read our ASVAB study guide for all 9 ASVAB sections on our website to enhance entirely your knowledge.

                Read more >> ASVAB Electronics Information Study Guide

                  ASVAB Paragraph Comprehension Study Guide

                  Reading is one of the most fundamental skills in learning. One cannot achieve academic understanding without being able to know how to read. However, reading alone does not suffice the needs if it is only limited to sounding words or phrases. It should always be partnered with comprehension and a deep understanding of the text.

                  January 1, 2022

                  Reading is one of the most fundamental skills in learning. One cannot achieve academic understanding without being able to know how to read. However, reading alone does not suffice the needs if it is only limited to sounding words or phrases. It should always be partnered with comprehension and a deep understanding of the text. Our ASVAB Paragraph Comprehension Study Guide will show you useful tips and tricks to get a good score in this section. 

                  Enhancing reading comprehension will start with reading comprehension skills development. These skills would start from using the easiest, low order thinking skills up to the most complex, higher-order thinking skills such as the very simple note-taking, summarizing, sequencing, up to inferring, comparing and contrasting, distinguishing fact from opinion, finding the main idea, and drawing conclusions. Take our free ASVAB Paragraph Comprehension practice tests now to improve all these required skills.


                  Reading comprehension is also based on your purpose—whether you do intensive reading or extensive reading. Extensive reading is a pleasure reading and you read for the sake of relaxation. You can pick your own topic of interest and indulge yourself without having any accountability for what you read. Extensive reading usually occurs when you read magazines, comic books, picture books, novels, short stories, and the likes. 

                  On the other hand, intensive reading is the total opposite of extensive reading. Intensive reading is deep and careful reading for information. This kind of reading is usually evident in academic reading where you read to collect knowledge through research papers, term papers, projects, and the likes.

                  When compared, readers usually have more concentration and focus when having extensive reading as they self-indulge in the material. Intensive reading puts the readers under the pressure of understanding the text at hand which is why several techniques could be used to better apply intensive reading that will be discussed in the latter portion of this article.

                  ASVAB Paragraph Comprehension Test Information

                  The ASVAB paragraph comprehension section tests your reading ability and interprets the information contained within a passage. In this section, you will read a paragraph and be asked for the author’s purpose, or what is the meaning of a specific word in the passage, based on the case of the sentence where it is included.

                  To help you get to familiarize yourself with the test format of the exam, our Paragraph Comprehension questions are crafted with the same length-and-style passages as those on the actual ASVAB test. You will be asked 11 questions in 22 minutes on the CAT-ASVAB test, while the paper-and-pencil version features 15 questions in 13 minutes.

                  Your score on this section is calculated to your AFQT score, which determines if you are qualified for military service. So you should pay more effort into this test to get a ticket to your desire job.

                  Types of Question on ASVAB Paragraph Comprehension

                  ASVAB Paragraph Comprehension Study Guide
                  ASVAB Paragraph Comprehension Study Guide


                  In testing reading comprehension, there are three types of questions that you have to be familiar with: literal, inferential, and evaluative types of questions. Other scholars would term these as factual, interpretive, and evaluative questions that differ in their level of difficulty.

                  Read more >> ASVAB Electronics Information Study Guide

                  LITERAL or FACTUAL QUESTIONS

                  Literal or factual questions usually appear on the first part of the questionnaire after the story. These questions use very basic thinking skills and would not require you to analyze as the answers are found on the text itself and could be proven by anyone.  It will tell you what actually happened in the text or what the text is all about.

                  Although these types of questions are very basic, they are very important questions because they will provide you the foundation of more advanced comprehension. If you would not be able to attain this level of understanding, you will find it hard to proceed to the higher-level types of questions.

                  Literal questions usually include but are not limited to these:

                  • What is the story all about?
                  • Where did the story happen?
                  • Who are the characters of the story?
                  • When did the story happen?
                  • How did the story end?

                  In terms of academic contexts, literal questions may be in the form of any factual knowledge asked such as the data, the stated information, the proponents, and such.


                  Inferential or interpretive questions test a higher level of comprehension. These questions would usually ask what the text means. Here, you go back to stating the basic information from the literal level and use the knowledge to interpret deeper understanding. These questions would solicit answers that are not stated in the text. Readers should make inferences from the given information and read between the lines.

                  Inferential questions could start with these phrases:

                  • Why do you think…
                  • What is the problem….
                  • Why did the character….
                  • What can you conclude about…
                  • What lesson….

                  Inferential questions may ask you to make generalizations, emphasize the cause and effect relationship, predict what will happen, and identify unstated ideas from the text.

                  EVALUATIVE QUESTIONS

                  Evaluative questions are the highest form of questions. These types of questions let you go beyond the text and consider what you think and believe based on the information and inferences you made from the text. At this level, you are asked to justify your opinion, argue for a certain stand, analyze the content critically, and determine the stand of the author. While inferential questions are reading between the lines, evaluative questions are reading beyond the text and looking for the big picture.

                  This type of question uses higher-order thinking skills and often requires the highest level of reading comprehension. You may be asked some questions in these forms:

                  • What is your opinion about….
                  • Do you think… is it a good or bad thing?
                  • How do you feel about…
                  • Do you agree with…
                  • What would you have done in…
                  • How did the text make you feel?

                  ASVAB Paragraph Comprehension Tips

                  In taking examinations that require reading comprehension, the time pressure could make you throw off your focus. That is why it is important to come up with a good strategy for intensive reading. 

                  Asvab paragraph reading tips
                  ASVAB Paragraph Comprehension Study Guide


                  Some strategies in reading may use SKIMMING and SCANNING for a time-friendly information gathering. Skimming is a form of rapid reading that would focus on the titles, headings, topic sentences, tables, charts, symbols, and other visual organizers. This is a quick trip to pages to get an overall idea.

                  On the other hand, Scanning is going over through the text to look for specific information while not necessarily reading the ‘whole’ text. Usually, scanning is used to look for literal information such as the Wh-questions. These strategies could help you save up time especially in dealing with lengthy paragraphs in a short period of time. 

                  Furthermore, some test takers prefer to read the questions first before looking through the text. This way will help you know exactly what to look for in the text without having to read the full paragraph.

                  Most essential, thoroughly read each option. Always keep track of the time when reading, but don’t lose attention. Take each question one at a time and seek keywords that might lead to an answer. Lastly, remember to read more every day and practice answering comprehension skills questionnaires to enhance your reading comprehension skills.

                  All 9 ASVAB parts are covered by our free ASVAB practice test 2022 and ASVAB Study Guide. Check it out right now!

                  Read more >> ASVAB Arithmetic Reasoning Study Guide